REFLECTIVE WRITING. Introduction and aims of session. To explore the idea of reflection To outline and discuss some theories of reflection To reflect on experience and explore the idea of writing reflectively. What is reflection?. Definition:
Introductionand aims of session • To explore the idea of reflection • To outline and discuss some theories of reflection • To reflect on experience and explore the idea of writing reflectively
What is reflection? Definition: "The process of internally examining and exploring an issue of concern, triggered by an experience, which creates and clarifies meaning in terms of self, and which results in a changed conceptual perspective" (Boyd, E. & Fales A.(1983) Reflecting learning: key to learning from experience. J. of Humanistic Psychology 23: (2): 99–117.
What is reflection? • Learning from experience: means of processing experience and using it to promote learning • Thinking systematically about past and present events/incidents and your role in them • Forming generalisations/theories • A way of linking theory and practice
Theories of reflection • Kolb’s ( 1984) experiential learning cycle • Schon’s (1991) model of reflection • Boud’s (1985) model of reflection
KOLB’S EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CYCLE Direct experience Planning Observing action and reflecting Formation of generalizations and principles
KOLB’S LEARNING CYCLE APPLIED TO PRACTICE Carry out examination Plan examination Reflect next timeon what happened Make sense of what happened, form explanations and relate to theory
Schon’s model of reflection Reflection is a process which occurs over time • Reflecting for action • Reflecting in action • Reflecting on action ('cognitive post-mortem‘) Schon D (1991) The Reflective Practitioner - How Professionals Think in Action. New York:Basic Books.
Boud’s model • Returning to experience • Attending to feelings: utilizing positive feelings and removing negative feelings • Re-evaluating experience: changing perception/interpretation of the event • Application of new learning in new situation Boud D, Cohen R and Walker D (1985) Reflection: turning experience into learning. London: Kogan Page
Contexts of reflection • Internal factors e.g. your feelings, your emotions around the event • External factors e.g. the environment, other people involved, social factors such as power differentials
Outcomes of reflection Particular: • Clarification of an issue • Development of a skill • Problem solving • Increased self-confidence
Outcomes of reflection General: • New perspectives on experience • Changes in behaviour • Readiness for action
Activity 1 Reflecting on experience In pairs: One person to act as the `storyteller’, the other as the listener/note taker Stage 1: • Storyteller to think of an event or incident in your last placement which challenged you • Describe the incident briefly to your partner • Partner to make brief notes
Activity 1 Reflecting on experience Stage 2: Partner to question storyteller about their experience • What happened? • What went well, and why? • What went less well, and why? • What would I do (differently) next time? • What insights have I gained from the experience?
Activity 1 Reflecting on experience Stage 3: Writing reflectively • Together write a short (no more than 1 side A4) reflective account of the incident • Use a reflective model to underpin your account • Weight your account in favour of analysis rather than description
Activity 1 Reflecting on experience Stage 4: Feedback to group • What have you learned? • About the process of reflection? • About yourself? • About writing reflectively
Summary: Writing reflexively for academic purposes • Writing in the first person: not simple storytelling or description, but reflecting on your experience in relation to academic literature. • Standing back from the original experience and analyzing it as an `outsider’ – what insights have you gained?
Writingreflexively for academic purposes • Balance of description and reflection: how much description of case/patient and how much reflection on your role • Incorporating theory: how is your practice underpinned by theory? • Using learning journals/reflective diaries to aid reflection