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Collab. Final Exam Review Powerpoint Please use these with the idea that they are student generated and may be missing some information. Use they and ask yourself the following question, “Is all the information that I need here and correct?”. 1) Leader of Young Italy.

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Final Exam Review Powerpoint

Please use these with the idea that they are student generated and may be missing some information. Use they and ask yourself the following question, “Is all the information that I need here and correct?”

1 leader of young italy
1) Leader of Young Italy
  • Giuseppe Mazzini was the leader.
  • Was a speaker for the movement for Italian unity (Risorgimento)
  • In 1831 he founded a secret society called Young Italy. It was going to transform Italy into an independent nation.
  • He felt that a nation-state was very important.
2 reasons for end of bismarck s reign in prussia
2) Reasons for end of Bismarck’s reign in Prussia
  • He had strict rule that prevented the development of a parliamentary democracy.
  • Tried to destroy the socialist party but it was too popular.
3 definitions of nationalism
3) Definitions of Nationalism
  • Pride in ones own nation, a desire for independence.
  • A more aggressive form of nationalism was when countries wanted to expand and used force because they thought there country was superior.
4 garibaldi
4) Garibaldi
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi was the leader of the Italian nationalists that were preparing for revolution in southern Italy.
  • Was an expert in Guerilla warfare and he took part in Mazzini’s Roman Republic. When it fell in 1849 he fled to the united states.
  • When the people of the Kingdom of the two Sicilies were ready to revolt he returned to Italy.
  • In a few weeks he gained control of the island. he was later defeated on the mainland and surrendered everything to Victor Emanuel the II
16 treaty of versailles participants

The countries that participated in the Treaty of Versailles included:

  • The United States
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Italy
  • Who were deciding what to do with:
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Bulgaria
  • Ottoman Empire

Allied Powers


16. Treaty of Versailles participants

17 provisions of the treaty of versailles
17. Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Military reduced German army and banned conscription and manufacturing of war weapons
  • Reduced Germany in size
  • Forced Germany to return Alsace-Loraine to France
  • Allied forces would occupy the Rhineland together
  • Germany had to renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • Reestablished independent Poland
  • Took Germany’s overseas colonies
18 assassination of franz ferdinand
18. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

Franz Ferdinand was the archduke of Austria, and was assassinated on the way to a speech.

21 kellogg briand pact
21.) Kellogg-Briand Pact

Between the US and France in 1928 to denounce war as a means of settling disputes. It was eventually signed by all nations of the world; however, it was poorly enforced.

22 militarism


the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.

23 goal of serbian nationalists
23.Goal of Serbian Nationalists
  • Establish a greater Serbia.
24 reason of russia entering wwi
24.Reason of Russia Entering WWI
  • Russia became involved in WWI because Serbia, and ally of Russia, was attacked and accused of assassination by Austria-Hungary.
reasons for italy s neutrality 25
Reasons for Italy’s Neutrality 25
  • Germany invaded Belguim and Italy was scared
purpose for ww1 propaganda26
Purpose for WW1 propaganda26
  • To make it look like being in the was honorable so more people would join the war
no mans land 27
No mans land 27
  • The land between the opposing west trenches, France and Germany
sinking of the lusitania 31
Sinking of the Lusitania-31
  • The Germans sink the Lusitania in 1915
zimmerman note 32
Zimmerman Note-32
  • From Germany to Mexico saying if they join the war they will return the land they lost (Texas, Arizona etc)
difference between marxism and russian communism 33
Difference between Marxism and Russian Communism-33
  • Russian Communism never got to Marxism, Soviet government ran government and Marxism was run by the people
wilson s 14 points 34

Wilson’s 14 Points#34

Wilson’s 14 points was a Peace plan made by Wilson which guided the making of the Treaty of Versailles.

g b and france s goals for germany post ww1 35
G.B and France’s goals for Germany post WW1 #35
  • France and Great Britain wanted reparations from Germany after WW1 to help pay for their damages of he war.
declaration of war that began ww1 36
Declaration of War that began WW1 #36
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. Serbia would not allow Austria-Hungary to investigate. Then Austria-Hungry delivered an ultimatum which Serbia did not meet.
38 causes of wwi
#38: Causes of WWI

Militarism and Nationalism

39 powder keg of europe
#39: Powder Keg Of Europe

The nationalistic feelings of the people in the Balkan region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Serbia, Bosnia, etc.) gave the region the nickname of the "Powder Keg of Europe." 

technological advances


Technological Advances
  • Poison Gas
  • Railways
  • Tanks
  • Submarines
  • Small Arms
  • Flamethrowers
characteristics of the eastern front
Characteristics of the Eastern Front


The length of the front in the east was much longer than in the west. While World War I on the Western Front developed into trench warfare, the battle lines on the Eastern Front were much more fluid and trenches never truly developed.

battles of verdun and somme


Battles of Verdun and Somme

The Battle of Verdun was one of the critical battles during World War 1 on the Western Front. The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from 1 July to 18 November 1916, was among the largest battles of the World War 1.

43 reasons for totalitarian rulers after ww1
43. Reasons for totalitarian rulers after WW1
  • Totalitarianism is a government that has complete control over every aspect of life.
  • This type of government emerged because of the poor state of the economies and countries after the WW1. Italy and Germany are examples of these countries.
44 total war
44. Total War
  • Total war is all citizens and soldiers participate in battle. Not necessarily violence, citizens could participate in a non-violent way.
  • Picture is isn’t from WW1 but is an example of non violent propaganda used in total war.
45 isolationism
45. Isolationism
  • The foreign policy of a country to isolate itself from other countries.
  • A country that practices isolationism doesn’t have alliances, and has trade barriers from other countries.
  • China practiced isolationism
46 causes of wwii

46. Causes of WWII

Fascism- Aggressive nationalism

Treaty of Versailles- Japan was mad because they weren’t treated like equals, and Germany was completely screwed because she lost all her colonies and had to pay reparations.

Appeasement- They gave Hitler a little bit of land to make him happy and avoid war, however Hitler is a greedy bastard and wanted more land so he took more, by force.

47 characteristics of fascism
47. Characteristics of Fascism
  • State over citizen
  • A form of aggressive nationalism
48 militarism in japan
48. Militarism in Japan
  • The military controlled the government of Japan.
52 types of governments in 1920s in germany italy japan ussr

52. Types of Governments in 1920s in Germany, Italy, Japan, USSR.

Germany = Totalitarian

Italy = Totalitarian

Japan = Military

Russia = Communist

53 beginning of great depression
53. Beginning of Great Depression
  • When there were no jobs and everyone was broke.
54 soviet communism under lenin
54. Soviet Communism under Lenin
  • When Lenin took control of Russia and turned it into communist and renamed Russia to USSR.
55 communist leaders

#55. Communist leaders

Communism- a socioeconomic structure and political ideology that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless society based on common ownership and control of the means of production and property in general is a socioeconomic structure and political ideology that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless society based on common ownership and control of the means of production and property in general

56 hitler s early life
#56. Hitler's early life
  • rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval. Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. Once in power, he eliminated all opposition and launched an ambitious program of world domination and elimination of the Jews, paralleling ideas he advanced in his book, Mein Kamp. His "1,000 Year Reich" barely lasted 12 years and he died a broken and defeated man.
57 global depression
#57. global depression
  • The global economic situation looks increasingly bad as we face a certain global depression primarily due to the insane monetary policies of the central bankers. The Federal Reserve is now attempting to bail out failing financial institutions by creating more money out of thin air. Some of the big banks are reporting losses greater than the assets they have on the books.
58 reason stalin gained control of russia

58) Reason Stalin gained control of Russia

After Lenin s death in 1924, Joseph Stalin quickly gained control of the Communist party and the oppressive reforms started by Lenin were continued and at length became completely totalitarian. Stalin was able to attain control as a result of a multitude of reasons. He was not, however, Lenin s choice for a successor. Lenin believed that Trotsky was the best suitable to take the Communist party to the next level. Trotsky was not all that popular among party members though and Stalin was in a position as Gen Sek, or General Secretary, to place his people in powerful positions throughout the party. Also, Stalin worked extremely hard at achieving power whereas Trotsky was rather lazy. Because of these reasons along with Stalin s zero tolerance attitude towards everyone, he was able to seize control.

59 stalin s reforms
59) Stalin's Reforms
  • Stalin put into effect two self proclaimed "five-year plans" over the course of his rule. Both were very similar in that they were intended to improve production in the nation. The first of these plans began collectivization, in which harvests and industrial products were seized by the government and distributed as needed. The government eliminated most private businesses and the state became the leader in commerce. Stalin also initiated a process called "Russification". Through this program, he ruled the minority nations of the USSR such as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan more strictly. This policy of expansion also helped Stalin seize a large portion of Poland, and it was done under the guise that it was to "enrich the nation." Stalin established a secret police force which was unyielding and went about it's business with an iron fist, bringing down dissenters, revolutionaries, and those that cheated in collectivization. Much of Stalin's effectiveness can probably be contributed to this police force; because of their keenness in apprehending "criminals," Stalin went generally unopposed and he could carry out his policies which no one liked, but everyone endured. Anti-Semitism was abundant and encouraged at this time. Stalin's entrance into WWII left the Soviet Union, although victorious, in shambles. These factors all led to Stalin becoming an unpopular leader over his powerless people.
60 weimar republic
60) Weimar Republic
  • The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government, named after Weimar, the place where the constitutional assembly took place. Its official name was still Deutsches Reich (German Empire), however. Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution in November 1918. In 1919, a national assembly convened in the city of Weimar, where a new constitution for the German Reich was written, to be adopted on 11 August. The attempt to establish a liberal democracy in Germany eventually failed 14 years later with the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in 1933. Although the 1919 Weimar constitution was never officially repealed, the legal measures taken by the Nazi government in February and March 1933, commonly known as Gleichschaltung ("forcible coordination") destroyed the mechanisms of democracy. Therefore, 1933 is usually seen as the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of Hitler's "Third Reich".
61 league of nations
#61 League of Nations
  • The League of Nations is a organizations founded as a result of the Treaty Of Versailles.


62 sudetenland
#62 Sudetenland
  • The Sudetenland encompasses an area of 27,000 sq. kilometers (10,400 sq. miles) in Bohemia, Moravia and Sudeten Silesia (the latter, being part of Silesia which in 1763, after the Seven Years War between Maria Theresia of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia, had remained part of Austria.)
63 rhineland
#63 Rhineland
  • The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. After the collapse of the French Empire in the early 19th century, the German-speaking regions at the middle and lower course of the Rhine were annexed to the kingdom of Prussia.
70 franklin d roosevelt
70. Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Roosevelt provided Lend-Lease aid to Winston Churchill and the British war effort before the United States' entry into World War II in December 1941. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States.
71 churchill

71. Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 - January 1965) was a British politician known chiefly for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II.

72 stalin
72. Stalin
  • Josef Stalin (born  – 18 December 1878  – 5 March 1953) was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin launched a command economy,replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization.
73 truman


As President, Truman made some of the most crucial decisions in history. Soon after V-E Day, the war against Japan had reached its final stage. An urgent plea to Japan to surrender was rejected. Truman, after consultations with his advisers, ordered atomic bombs dropped on cities devoted to war work. Two were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japanese surrender quickly followed.


74 mussolini
  • an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism.
75 auschwitz
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau became the killing centre where the largest numbers of European Jews were killed during the Holocaust. After an experimental gassing there in September 1941 of 850 malnourished and ill prisoners, mass murder became a daily routine. By mid 1942, mass gassing of Jews using Zyklon-B began at Auschwitz, where extermination was conducted on an industrial scale with some estimates running as high as three million persons eventually killed through gassing, starvation, disease, shooting, and burning ...
  • #76
  • Began as an allied commander.
  • Started Vietnam War
  • 34th President
  • #77
  • It is known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare when it was bombed by the United States of America on August 6, 1945 during World War II.
advantages of blitzkrieg
Advantages of Blitzkrieg
  • #78
  • force concentrating on its attack on a small section of the enemy front then, once the latter is pierced, proceeding without regard to its flank.
  • Lightning War
event that started world war two
Event that started World War Two
  • #79
  • Treaty of Versailles, bad for Germany.
island hopping
Island Hopping
  • #80
  • This strategy was possible in part because the Allies used submarine and air attacks to blockade and isolate Japanese bases, weakening their garrisons and reducing the Japanese ability to resupply and reinforce.
scorched earth policy
Scorched-earth policy
  • #81
  • A scorched earth policy is a military strategy or operational method which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area.
manhattan project
Manhattan Project


The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II, primarily by the United States, to develop the first atomic bomb.

hitler s plans for the jews
Hitler’s plans for the Jews


Hitler’s plan was to exterminate as many Jews, if not all, possible. He thought they were not German and just a waste of food.

reasons for hitler s decision to invade the ussr
Reasons for Hitler’s decision to invade the USSR


Hitler wanted to get the wheat and fuel from the area near the border of Poland and Russia. Russia was also a threat to Germany.

85 weakness of the league of nations
#85 Weakness of the League of Nations
  • The League of Nations wasn’t stopping other countries from invading other ones (ex. Germany)
  • They weren’t able to enforce their policies
86 reason for us entering wwii
#86 Reason for US Entering WWII
  • Japan bombed the US fleet at Pearl Harbor
87 last german offensive
#87 Last German Offensive
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • The Allies went from England to France and then from there they attacked Germany from behind while the Germans were fighting the Soviets
d day
  • #88
  • Attack on June 6, on Northern France
final solution
“Final solution”
  • #89
  • Nazi code word for destruction of all Jews
major challenge of post wwii
Major challenge of Post WWII
  • #90
  • Pissed off Stalin
  • Both had nuclear capabilities
major challenge of post wwii1
Major Challenge of Post WWII
  • #90
  • To rebuild countries and their economies
reasons for cold war
Reasons for Cold War
  • #91
  • Two super powers building up on weapons because they are afraid one will attack.
reasons for cold war vs hot war
Reasons for “Cold War” vs “Hot War”
  • #92
  • Since nuclear weapons were involved they knew if one side attcked the result would be total war
differences in cold war ideologies and economics
Differences in Cold War ideologies and economics
  • #93
  • America believes in going into debt while soviet believes they can just spend until they out-spend America
reason for un security councils reference as a debating society
Reason for UN security councils reference as a “debating society”
  • #97
  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action. Its powers are exercised through United Nations Security Council Resolutions.
ussr influence on eastern europe
USSR influence on eastern Europe
  • #98
  • Because of the spread of communism
  • Some countries were satellites such as Poland
marshall plan
Marshall Plan
  • #99
  • The Marshall Plan (from its enactment, officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, and repelling communism after World War II
105 containment
105. Containment
  • Containment was the policy of keeping communism in one spot.
106 truman doctrine
106.) Truman Doctrine

Allowed the US to international responsibilities as the leader the Western world. Because of this, Greece was able to win against communist forces and block it from the eastern Mediterranean

107 purpose of de stalinization by khrushchev
107.Purpose of “de-Stalinization” by Khrushchev
  • De-Stalinization spelled an end to the role of large-scale forced labor in the economy.
events that increased tension between ussr and us during the cold war 108
Events that increased tension between USSR and US during the cold war 108
  • US making the atom bomb, USSR making the atom bomb
  • US and USSR making h-bomb
  • Berlin Blockade
purpose of salt treaties 110
Purpose of SALT treaties-110
  • United States and the Soviet Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and restraints on some of their central and most important armaments.
reason cuba was a focal point in the cold war 111
Reason Cuba was a focal point in the cold war. #111
  • Because Russia put missiles in Cuba because it is close to America so it could hit any major U.S city it wants.
112 resolution to the missile crisis
#112: Resolution To The Missile Crisis

United States said they would take their missiles out of Turkey if Soviets said they would take theirs out of Cuba.

josip tito
Josip Tito


He was Secretary-General (later President) of the Communist Party (League of Communists) of Yugoslavia (1939–80), and went on to lead the WWII Yugoslav resistance movement, the Yugoslav Partisans (1941–45).

114 red guard and little red book
114. Red Guard and Little Red Book
  • Red Guard is a group of civilians, and teachers in China that were mobilized by Mao to support his views.
  • They carried the Little Red Book which is a compilation of Mao’s past speeches and beliefes.
115 reasons for tiananmen square massacre
115. Reasons for Tiananmen Square Massacre
  • There was a protest in Tiananmen Square so the government, not allowing the right of protest or of free speech because they were commies, massacred them.
117 history of korean peninsula
117. History of Korean Peninsula
  • Divided into 38th parallel. North was communist and south was capitalism.
118 division of korea
#118. division of Korea
  • The 38th parallel was first suggested as a dividing line for Korea in 1902[citation needed]. Russia was attempting to pull Korea under its control, while Japan had just secured recognition of its rights in Korea from the British. In an attempt to prevent any conflict, Japan proposed to Russia that the two sides split Korea into separate spheres of influence along the 38th parallel. However, no formal agreement was ever reached, and Japan later took full control of Korea.
119 domino theory
119) Domino Theory
  • The domino theory was a foreign policy theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
120 the purpose of gulf of tonkin resolution
#120 The purpose of Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • The Tonkin Gulf Resolution

(officially, the Southeast Asia

Resolution, Public Law 88-408)

was a joint resolution of the

United States Congress passed

on August 7, 1964 in response

to two alleged minor naval

skirmishes off the coast of

North Vietnam between U.S.

destroyers and Vietnamese

torpedo ships from the North

123 us decision to end cuban missile crisis
123. US decision to end Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in October 1962, during the Cold War. In Russia, it is termed the "Caribbean Crisis" while in Cuba it is called the "October Crisis." The Cuban and Soviet governments decided in September 1962 to place nuclear missiles on Cuba in order to protect it from United States harassment. When United States intelligence discovered the weapons its government decided to do all they could to ensure the removal of them. The United States also considered covert action again and had inserted CIA paramilitary officers from their Special Activities Division. Air Force General Curtis LeMay presented to Kennedy a pre-invasion bombing plan in September, while spy flights and minor military harassment from the United States Guantanamo Naval Base were the subject of continual Cuban diplomatic complaints to the U.S. government.
124 reason for division of germany after ww2
124.Reason for division of Germany after WW2
  • As a consequence of Germany's defeat in World War II and the onset of the Cold War, the country was split between the two global blocs in the East and West. Germany would not be reunited until 1990
reason for us participation in vietnam and korean wars
Reason for US participation in Vietnam and Korean Wars
  • #125
  • To prevent communism from spreading
  • Domino effect
characteristics of japan after world war two
Characteristics of Japan after World War Two
  • #126
  • Had only a defense military and the US was taking over
  • Made electronics
leader of communist china until 1976
Leader of communist China until 1976


The leader of China in this time period was Mao Zedong. He created multiple economic plans to help China like the First Five Year Plan, The Great Leap Forward, and The Cultural Revolution.

128 great leap forward
#128 Great Leap Forward
  • A Chinese ambitious economic plan
  • Cooperatives merged into larger government-controlled communes
  • Citizens had to work ranging from farming to iron making
deng xiaping s changes in china

Deng Xiaping’s changes in China


4 modernizations: allows some capitalism, changed agriculture, industrial, scientific, and defense.

history of vietnam
History of Vietnam
  • In 1954 they were a colony of france but then became independent
  • #130
event that started korean war
Event that started Korean War
  • #132
  • The period immediately before the war was marked by escalating border conflicts at the 38th Parallel and attempts to negotiate elections for the entirety of Korea
  • North Korea invading South Korea
  • #133
  • the political and economic reforms introduced in June 1987[1] by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet economy.