protein concentrates n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Protein Concentrates PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Protein Concentrates

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 32

Protein Concentrates - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 147 Views
  • Uploaded on

Protein Concentrates. Pages 220-229. Classes of Protein Concentrates. Plant Byproducts of oilseed or grain processing Animal Byproducts of meat, dead animal, fish or dairy processing Nonprotein Nitrogen (NPN). General Characteristics of Protein Concentrates. Processing of Oilseed Meals.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Protein Concentrates' - dunn


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
classes of protein concentrates
Classes of Protein Concentrates
  • Plant
    • Byproducts of oilseed or grain processing
  • Animal
    • Byproducts of meat, dead animal, fish or dairy processing
  • Nonprotein Nitrogen (NPN)
processing of oilseed meals
Processing of Oilseed Meals

Expeller process Solvent extraction

Oilseed

Drying

Drying

Crushing

Hull

removal

Hulls

Cooking

Flaking

Extrude

through

dies

Meal

Hexane

extraction

Heat,

if needed

Meal

Hexane & Oil

Oil

Distillation

Hexane

Oil

slide6

Use of SBM in ration balancing

    • Commonly used in diets of all nonruminant and ruminant species
    • Expeller processed SBM may be useful in the diets of ruminants with high protein requirements
      • High producing dairy cows
      • Calves less than 600 lbs
    • Limit SBM in the early diets of young animals (To avoid allergic reactions)
      • Milk replacers
        • Use purified soy protein concentrate
      • Nursery pigs (First diet)
        • Use purified soy protein concentrate
        • Limit SBM to 12 to 15% of first diet
slide7

Whole (Full-fat) soybeans

    • Nutrition characteristics
      • Crude protein 38%
      • Fat 18% (Highly unsaturated)
      • TDN 99.8%
    • Processing
      • Must heat at 100oC for 3 minutes
      • Destroys trypsin inhibitor and urease
    • Uses in diets
      • Depends on the economics of soybean oil
      • Nonruminants
        • Can replace all of the soybean meal in growing-finishing pigs
        • Will increase the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the pork
      • Ruminants
        • Limit to 8 lb/day in dairy cow diets to prevent milk fat depression
        • Liltte use in beef cattle
cottonseed meal csm
Cottonseed Meal (CSM)
  • Nutritional characteristics
    • Crude protein concentration, % 36-41
    • Protein digestibility High
    • Limiting amino acids Lysine, Methionine, Tryptophan
    • Ruminal protein degradability 75
    • TDN, % 78
    • NDF, % 28
    • Palatability
      • Cattle High
      • Swine and poultry Moderate
  • Antiquality factors
    • Gossypol
      • Toxic to young nonruminants (Pneumonia-like symptoms)
      • Turns egg yolks green
      • Can be avoided with degossypolized CSM or adding Ferrous Sulfate (1:1 Fe:Gossypol) to diet
    • Sterculic acid
      • Turns egg whites pink
slide9

Uses in diets

    • Ruminants
      • Can supply all of the supplemental protein
      • Commonly fed as supplement to grazing cattle in south
    • Nonruminants and poultry
      • Limit to 25 to 30% of the protein supplement
  • Whole cottonseed
    • Can be fed as both an energy and protein supplement
      • Also high in fiber
    • Used with lactating dairy cows
    • Limit to 8 lb/day
sunflower meal snfm
Sunflower Meal (SNFM)
  • Nutritional characteristics
    • Crude protein concentration, % 40-45
    • Protein digestibility High
    • Limiting amino acids Lysine
    • Ruminal protein degradability 75
    • TDN, % 65-74
    • NDF, % 40
    • Palatability
      • Cattle High
      • Swine and poultry Low
  • Antiquality factors
    • Fiber
slide11

Uses in diets

    • Ruminants
      • Can supply all of the supplemental protein
    • Swine
      • Limit to 30 to 50% of the protein supplement for pigs greater than 75 lb
    • Poultry
      • Limit to 30 to 50% of the protein supplement for broiler or layer diets
linseed meal lsm
Linseed Meal (LSM)
  • A byproduct of flax seed processing
  • Nutritional characteristics
    • Crude protein concentration, % 34-38
    • Protein digestibility High
    • Limiting amino acids Lysine, Tryptophan
    • Ruminal protein degradability 75
    • TDN, % 81
    • NDF, % 25
    • Palatability High
  • Antiquality factors
    • None
  • Additional beneficial characteristic
    • Expeller processed LSM contains some linseed oil and mucin
      • Increases the glossiness of the coat of horses and show cattle
slide13

Uses in diets

    • Ruminant and mature horses
      • Can supply all of the supplemental protein
    • Nonruminants (including young horses) and poultry
      • Limit to 25 to 33% of the protein supplement
rapeseed canola meal
Rapeseed (Canola) Meal
  • Nutritional characteristics
    • Crude protein concentration, % 35-40
    • Protein digestibility High
    • Limiting amino acids Lysine
    • Ruminal protein degradability 75
    • TDN, % 69
    • NDF, % 17
    • Palatability Low
  • Antiquality factors
    • Goitrogens (Reduced by heating or use GM rapeseed)
      • Erucic acid
      • Myrosinase
  • Uses
    • Ruminants
      • Limit to 10% of the diet
    • Nonruminants and poultry
      • Young swine and poultry
        • Limit to 5% of diet
      • Mature swine and poultry
        • Lmit to 12% of diet
peanut meal
Peanut Meal
  • Nutritional characteristics
    • Crude protein concentration, % 40-48
    • Protein digestibility Low
    • Limiting amino acids Lysine, Methionine
    • Ruminal protein degradability 77
    • TDN, % 75
    • NDF, % 14
    • Palatability Moderate
  • Antiquality factors
    • Trypsin inhibitor
    • Mold (Aspergillusflavus)
  • Uses
    • Ruminants
      • Can comprise of all of the supplemental protein
    • Nonruminants and poultry
      • Limit to 30% of the supplement
      • Supplement with lysine and methionine
why is the cp requirement of a 150 lb growing finishing pig 15 cp
Why is the CP requirement of a 150 lb growing-finishing pig 15% CP?
  • To meet the N requirement for pigs fed any diet.
  • To meet the total Amino acid requirements of pigs fed any diet.
  • To meet the lysine requirements of pigs a corn-soybean meal diet.
  • To meet the essential amino acid requirements of pigs fed any diet.
synthetic amino acids
Synthetic Amino Acids
  • Manufactured by fermentation of corn
  • Economically viable
    • L-lysine
    • L-methionine
    • L-threonine
    • L-tryptophan
  • Use
    • Nonruminants and poultry
      • Supply essential amino acids to young animals
      • Reduce the amount of total crude protein required in diets
    • Ruminants
      • Protected forms fed to high producing dairy cows
animal protein concentrates
Animal Protein Concentrates
  • Byproducts of meat, dead animal rendering, poultry, fish, or dairy processing
  • Expensive relative to plant protein concentrates
  • Used in small quantities
  • Uses
    • Supply limiting amino acids, particularly to young animals
    • Replace more expensive protein sources in milk replacers
    • Impart additional nonnutritional benefits to young animals
      • Enhanced immune system
      • Increased maturity of digestive tract
    • Supply ruminallyundegraded protein to ruminants with high protein requirements
slide21

Uses in diets

    • Nonruminants and poultry
      • Feed at 5 to 10% of diet to balance lysine
    • Ruminants
      • Can be fed to supply ruminalundegradable protein
        • Ruminants can only be fed meat meal or meat and bone meal from nonruminant species
          • Prevention of prion transfer that causes Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)
slide22

Blood products

    • Blood meal
      • Dried coagulated blood
      • 80% Crude protein
      • Low protein digestiblity
      • High lysine content, but low availability (20%)
      • Low isoleucine and methionine
      • Low ruminal degradability (25%)
      • Uses
        • Ruminant diets
          • Source of ruminallyundegraded protein
        • Nonruminant diets
          • Only use in small quantities in diets of young pigs
slide23

Spray-dried blood plasma

    • 78% crude protein
    • High lysine content
    • Contains immunoglobulins
      • Stimulates immune function
    • Contains peptide growth factors
      • Stimulates maturation of intestinal epithelium
    • Uses
      • Nursery pigs
        • Fed at 4 to 7% of the diet
      • Milk replacers
        • Can replace all of the milk protein in replacers
fish processing byproducts
Fish Processing Byproducts
  • Fish meal
    • Produced from residues of fish processing industry or from fish caught for purpose of making fish meal
    • Nutritional characteristics
      • Crude protein concentration, % 35-70
      • Protein digestibility High
      • Amino acid composition All essential AA
      • Calcium, % 2.2
      • Phosphorus, % 1.7
      • B vitamins High
    • Uses
      • Young swine and poultry
        • Used in small quantities to supply deficient amino acids
      • Little use in ruminants
    • Concerns
      • Expense
      • Unsaturated fatty acids may become rancid
      • Imparts a fishy flavor to pork
poultry processing byproducts
Poultry Processing Byproducts
  • Poultry byproduct meal
    • Composed of heads, legs, intestine, and eggs
      • No feathers
    • Wet or dry rendered
    • Nutritional characteristics
      • 55-65% crude protein
      • Similar to meat and bone meal
    • Uses
      • Nonruminants
        • Small quantities to balance lysine
      • Ruminants
        • Little use
slide26

Feather meal

    • Feathers are cleaned and pressure-treated
    • Nutritional characteristics
      • Crude protein, % 85
      • Protein digestibility, % 75
      • Limiting amino acids Lysine, Methionine, Tryptophan, Histidine
    • Uses
      • Nonruminants
        • No more than 3% of diet
      • Ruminants
        • Can be used as a source of rumen undegraded protein
slide29

PROTEIN DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS

True protein

NPN

Undegraded Small intestine

Metabolizable

Degraded protein

Recycled via

saliva

(20% of dietary N) NH3 Microbial

protein

NH3

Liver

Urea Kidney Excreted

slide30

PROTEIN DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS

True protein

NPN

Undegraded Small intestine

Metabolizable

Degraded protein

Recycled via

saliva

(20% of dietary N) NH3 Microbial

protein

NH3

Liver

Urea Kidney Excreted

TDN

slide31

Major concern with feeding NPN sources

    • Ammonia toxicity
    • Occurs when
      • Excessive NPN is fed
      • NPN is not properly mixed into diet
      • Inadequate energy is fed with NPN
slide32

Thumbrules for NPN use

    • Use NPN only in diets of ruminants with low to moderate protein requirements
      • Use in diets of: Feedlot steers > 600 lb

Beef cows fed low protein roughages

Dry dairy cows

      • Do not use in diets of: Lactating dairy cows

Young cattle < 600 lb

    • NPN should not be > 1% of the diet DM
    • NPN should not be > 33% of the total N of the diet
    • NPN should not be > 10 to 15% of the protein supplement
    • NPN should not be > 5% of the protein supplement fed with a low quality roughage
    • Supply adequate energy in the diet if NPN is added.
      • Grain
      • Molasses
        • Liquid supplements or protein tubs