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高瞻遠矚( High/Scope )課程模式介紹:發展、實踐與成效 PowerPoint Presentation
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高瞻遠矚( High/Scope )課程模式介紹:發展、實踐與成效. 葉玉賢老師. High/Scope 成立背景. High/Scope 成立背景. 1960 年代初,密西根州易絲蓮市( Ypsilanti, Michigan )公立學校裡一位負責特別事務的 David P. Weikart 鑑於看到該市高中生中,來自於低收入戶家庭的學生在學習成就是失敗的一群,因而成立一特別委員會,和三名小學校長共同研究。

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high scope

高瞻遠矚(High/Scope)課程模式介紹:發展、實踐與成效高瞻遠矚(High/Scope)課程模式介紹:發展、實踐與成效

葉玉賢老師

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High/Scope成立背景
  • 1960年代初,密西根州易絲蓮市(Ypsilanti, Michigan)公立學校裡一位負責特別事務的David P. Weikart鑑於看到該市高中生中,來自於低收入戶家庭的學生在學習成就是失敗的一群,因而成立一特別委員會,和三名小學校長共同研究。
  • 1962年,Weikart成立密西根州政府第一個政府贊助的托兒所方案,稱之為「培瑞托兒所方案」(Perry preschool project)。該方案專為3-4歲兒童設計,Weikart認為,方案的主要目的在「協助低收入戶家庭居於不利的兒童」(Educating disadvantaged children)。
  • 1971年,Weikart出版《認知導向的課程:一個適合學前教育工作者的指導方針》(The Cognitively Oriented Curriculum: A Framework for Preschool Educators)
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High/Scope成立背景
  • 1970年,Weikart離開了易絲蓮公立學校,另外成立了高瞻遠矚教育研究基金會(High/Scope Education Research Foundation),至今該基金會一直從事研究與發展培瑞方案(Perry Preschool Programme)的研究。
  • 1979年,基金會出版了《行動中的孩童:教師手冊》(Young Children in Action: A Manual for School Educators)。從該書的出版來看,培瑞方案已由原本強調皮亞傑的認知性工作,轉變到強調兒童是知識的建構者。該書認為,在認知發展之主動經驗(key experience of cognitive experience)的目標中,應增加「主動學習」(active learning)一項。
  • 因此,培瑞方案越來越走向兒童的「主體性」與「主動性」
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High/Scope的理論基礎
  • High/Scope以皮亞傑的學說為根據,其理論基礎為:

一、人類發展觀:

1. 人類發展是可以預測的,且循序漸進的。當個體成熟時,新的能力就會出現。

2. 儘管人的發展是可預測的順序發展,但只要每日的互動,也會開展個人獨特的特質出來。

3. 在生活史中,會有某一特定時期特別有利於某種事物的學習。

二、學習的觀點:

1. 學習就是發展上的轉變。

2. 兒童與外界互動,進而建構真實概念的精煉化過程,稱之為學習。

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High/Scope的課程內容
  • 主動參與學習(Active Participatory Learning):

 學生與成人透過面對面的活動來學習。

  • 課程要素:

1. 幼托關懷與教育。

2. 學前教育。

3. 孩童早期識字訓練。

4. 律動與音樂。

5. 基礎教育。

教學原理:

強調成人-兒童互動模式(adult-child interaction)

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High/Scope的課程內容
  • 上述五項課程要素是基於高瞻遠矚的58個關鍵發展指標(Key Developmental Indicators, KDIs)來設計。KDIs前身為「關鍵經驗」(key experiences),包括:
  • 1. 學習取向
  • 2. 語言、識字與溝通
  • 3. 社會與情緒發展
  • 4. 身體物理發展、健康與健全人格
  • 5. 藝術與科學
  • 6. 數學
  • 7. 科學與技術
  • 8. 社會研究
  • 9. 藝術
  •               (HighScope KDIs, 2009)
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一、意義:

1. 將幼兒視為主動學習者

2. 貫穿高瞻的一切課程

3. 高瞻教學指導的最高原則

二、學習之輪(Wheel of Learning):

以主動學習為課程主軸,而延伸出課程內容

老師的角色--輔導者、支持者、觀察者與引導者。

High/Scope的課程內容:主動式學習
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High/Scope的教學方法
  • 學習環境

1. 空間的組織

2. 興趣區(interest area)的建立

3. 材料的提供

  • 成人角色:

 成人是輔導者、支持者、觀察者與引導者。

  • 每日例行性活動之架構

High/Scope並沒有一套特殊的教學方法,但有一個架構引導每日例行活動之進行。藉此架構以便引導學生主動學習,同時,可以提供老師了解學生學習發展的資訊。

high scope plan do recall

High/Scope的「計畫-工作-反省」(Plan-Do-Recall)High/Scope的「計畫-工作-反省」(Plan-Do-Recall)

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High/Scope幼稚園的一天
  • 問候時間 (Greeting Time)(15–20 minutes) 

Greeting time provides a smooth transition from home to school and gives children and adults a chance to share important information for the day. 計劃時間(Planning Time )(10 minutes)Children indicate what they choose to do during work time (typically what they will do first). Adults try to understand children‘s plans and often try to help children extend their plans. 活動時間(Work Time) (45 minutes–1 hour) Children carry out their initial and subsequent plans. Children can work with any of the materials in any of the interest areas. Adults observe children and look for opportunities to enter into children’s activities to encourage their thinking, extend their play, and help them wrestle with problem-solving situations. 打掃時間(Cleanup) (10 minutes) Children and adults together return materials and equipment to their storage spaces and, when appropriate, put away or find display space for their personal creations. 反省時間(Recall Time) (10 minutes) Recall brings closure to the plan-­work­-recall sequence. Children reflect on, talk about, and/or show what they have done at work time.

*(以上四個就是Plan-Do-Recall活動)

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High/Scope幼稚園的一天
  • 點心與午餐時間Snack or Meal Times (20 minutes) Children and adults share nutritious food and interesting conversation together in a relaxed, family-style manner. 大團體時間Large-Group Time (10–15 minutes) Children and adults get together to play games, tell and reenact stories, sing songs, do finger-plays, dance, play musical instruments, or reenact special events. This time is an opportunity for each child to participate in a large group, sharing ideas and learning from the ideas of others. 小團體時間Small-Group Time (15–20 minutes) Each adult meets with a consistent small group of children to work with materials planned and introduced by the adult. Although the adult chooses and introduces the materials, each child has control over what he or she will do with these materials. 戶外去囉!Outside Time (30 minutes) Children engage in vigorous, noisy outdoor play. Adults participate in and support children's play in the outdoor setting.
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High/Scope的特殊性
  • PLAN-DO-REVIEW
  • ADULT-CHILD INTERACTION
  • THEORY TO PRACTICE
  • ACTIVE LEARNING FOR CHILDREN AND ADULTS
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在1962年到1967年之間,David Weikart與其在密西根的團隊成員,著手進行“High/Scope Perry Preschool Programme Study”,針對低收入戶3-4歲孩童的學習情形進行長期的縱貫研究。
  • Lawrence J. Schweinhart等人亦針對高瞻遠矚學前教育課程模式的實施成果進行一項長期縱貫的實驗設計研究(以下簡報為Schweinhart的研究過程與結果)。
four studies find long term benefits and return on investment
Four studies find long-term benefits and return on investment.
  • Weikart and Schweinhart’s High/Scope Perry Preschool Study found such effects for a high-quality preschool program versus no program.
  • Ramey and Campbell’s North Carolina Abecedarian project found such effects for high-quality versus typical child care.
  • Reynolds’ Chicago Child-Parent Centers study found such effects for a big-city service program.
  • Olds’ Elmira, New York, study found such effects for a nurse home visiting program.
three federal programs provide most of the funding for programs for low income young children
Three federal programs provide most of the funding for programs for low-income young children.
state preschool programs are spreading throughout the u s
State preschool programs are spreading throughout the U.S.
  • 38 states spend state funds on preschool programs.
  • These programs spent $2.8 billion to serve 800,000 children in 2004-2005.
  • Most, but not all, require teachers to be certified.
  • Most states have early learning standards for what children are to learn.
head start and state preschool programs nationally have modest effects
Head Start and state preschool programs nationally have modest effects.
  • Head Start Impact Study

 Modest effects on literacy, reduced problem behavior, increased parents reading to children

  • Head Start FACES Study

 Modest gains in children’s literacy and social skills in Head Start and kindergarten years

  • Five-State Preschool Study

 Improvements in children’s vocabulary, print awareness skills, and early mathematics skills.

using the validated high scope curriculum
Using the validated High/Scope Curriculum:
  • Adults help children take initiative and develop cognitively, socially, and physically.
  • The classroom has various activity areas and lots of accessible materials.
  • The daily routine includes time for children to plan, do, and review their activities.
high scope video
其他High/Scope教學Video(可參考下列網址)
  • http://secure.highscope.org/video.asp?file=/media/Larry/Lifetime%20effects41309.mov