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2. The Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century England primarily involved new techniques in:

2. The Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century England primarily involved new techniques in:

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2. The Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century England primarily involved new techniques in:

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  1. 2. The Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century England primarily involved new techniques in: A. shoe manufacturing B. ship construction C. furniture manufacturing D. textile production E. steel production

  2. “The pasturing stock is allowed in peace to eat up the food on the pastures to its utmost limits, thus the stock returns more ample profit to the farmer. In managing arable land, the farmer derives other solid advantages, such as security against trespass and adoption of correct crop rotation.” 3. The eighteenth-century British quotation above is a justification for which of the following? A. strip farming B. enclosure of common lands C. sharecropping D. collectivization E. terracing

  3. 4. Prior to the expansion of the factory system during the Industrial Revolution, which of the following contributed to the increase in production of manufactured goods? A. importation of silk and cotton cloth from the Far East B. expansion of the guild system in urban centers C. expansion of cottage industries in the countryside D. cultivation of formerly fallow lands. E. the completion of the railway system Which of these choices has to do with making goods?

  4. 6. Important prerequisites for Great Britain's industrialization in the mid-eighteenth centuryincluded which of the following? A. dramatic improvements in workers' housing in the cities B. a rapid increase in the amount of gold imported from New World colonies C. innovations in agricultural techniques and increases in food production D. rapid growth of a national system of rail transportation E. strong monarchical leadership and a centralized government bureaucracy

  5. 9. Which of the following statements regarding the Old Regime of the eighteenth century is NOT true? A. their economy was primarily agrarian B. serfdom in western European states had largely disappeared C. the influence of the second estate remained substantial D. papacy was able to dominate politics in all the major European states

  6. 9. Which of the following statements regarding the Old Regime of the eighteenth century is NOT true? A. their economy was primarily agrarian B. serfdom in western European states had largely disappeared C. the influence of the second estate remained substantial D. papacy was able to dominate politics in all the major European states

  7. 12. Under the domestic system in England: A. spinning and weaving of yarn and cloth was done in the workers' homes B. factory workers were prohibited from joining unions C. farmers expanded the use of crop rotation and fertilization D. shipbuilding was made a state monopoly

  8. 14. What problems did business people face in the early 18th century? A. Reduction in the number of merchant and craft guilds B. Lack of standard coins, weights and measures C. Lack of local tolls D. Reduction in banking and insurance services

  9. 14. What problems did business people face in the early 18th century? A. Reduction in the number of merchant and craft guilds B. Lack of standard coins, weights and measures C. Lack of local tolls D. Reduction in banking and insurance services

  10. 15. Which of the following was a production change that led to the need for the factory system? • water powered machinery • wind mills C. expensive raw materials D. banking systems

  11. 15. Which of the following was a production change that led to the need for the factory system? • water powered machinery • wind mills C. expensive raw materials D. banking systems

  12. 17. The Enclosure Movement, fencing in of pasture and common lands, was most evident in whichof the following states? A. France B. Spain C. Belgium D. England

  13. 17. The Enclosure Movement, fencing in of pasture and common lands, was most evident in whichof the following states? A. France B. Spain C. Belgium D. England

  14. 19. Before 1700, the total European population A. followed an irregular cycle of slow growth. B. always grew too fast. C. grew steadily and moderately. D. followed a cyclical pattern of steady decline.

  15. 21. The expansion of Europe in the eighteenth century featured all of the following EXCEPT A. growing population. B. increased world trade. C. expansion of agriculture. D. relatively peaceful international relations.

  16. 21. The expansion of Europe in the eighteenth century featured all of the following EXCEPT A. growing population. B. increased world trade. C. expansion of agriculture. D. relatively peaceful international relations.

  17. 23. The English Navigation Acts not only mandated that all English imports and exports had to be transported on English ship, they also A. restricted English banks from making foreign loans. B. initiated English involvement in the transatlantic slave trade. C. created an alliance with the Dutch against the French. D. restricted manufacturing in the colonies.

  18. 23. The English Navigation Acts not only mandated that all English imports and exports had to be transported on English ship, they also A. restricted English banks from making foreign loans. B. initiated English involvement in the transatlantic slave trade. C. created an alliance with the Dutch against the French. D. restricted manufacturing in the colonies.

  19. 25. The most persistent problem with the open-field system of agriculture was A. the scarcity of labor. B. bad weather. C. soil depletion. D. inequitable land distribution among the peasants.

  20. 27. According to Adam Smith, the duties of government included all of the following EXCEPT A. pursuit of policies favorable to large-scale manufacturing and commerce. B. defense against foreign invasion. C. maintenance of civil order. D. sponsorship of certain indispensable public works.

  21. 27. According to Adam Smith, the duties of government included all of the following EXCEPT A. pursuit of policies favorable to large-scale manufacturing and commerce. B. defense against foreign invasion. C. maintenance of civil order. D. sponsorship of certain indispensable public works.

  22. 29. Dutch leadership in farming can be attributed primarily to A. the exceptional fertility of their lands. B. a large urbanized population. C. the leadership of the Dutch scientific community. D. their strong nobility.

  23. 29. Dutch leadership in farming can be attributed primarily to A. the exceptional fertility of their lands. B. a large urbanized population. C. the leadership of the Dutch scientific community. D. their strong nobility.

  24. 32. Jethro Tull's contributions to English agriculture were the product of A. good luck. B. empirical research. C. deductive reasoning. D. speculative reasoning.

  25. 33. The social group upon which the success of the English agricultural revolution depended was the A. land-owning aristocracy. B. landless peasants. C. independent peasant farmers. D. tenant farmers.

  26. 33. The social group upon which the success of the English agricultural revolution depended was the A. land-owning aristocracy. B. landless peasants. C. independent peasant farmers. D. tenant farmers.

  27. 35. The eighteenth-century enclosure movement in England was responsible for the rise of market-oriented estate agriculture and the A. destruction of cottage industry. B. declining power of the English aristocracy. C. emergence of a landless rural proletariat. D. collapse of tenant farming.

  28. 37. The tremendous population growth of the second half of the eighteenth century resulted from all of the following EXCEPT A. earlier marriages. B. advances in medical science. C. improvements in transport and storage of grain. D. the disappearance of the bubonic plague.

  29. 37. The tremendous population growth of the second half of the eighteenth century resulted from all of the following EXCEPT A. earlier marriages. B. advances in medical science. C. improvements in transport and storage of grain. D. the disappearance of the bubonic plague.

  30. 38. All of the following were shortcomings of the putting-out system EXCEPT A. bottlenecks in the production process. B. rigid production techniques. C. quality control. D. labor relations. Bottleneck: something that hinders

  31. 40. Improvements associated with the Agricultural Revolution of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries began in: A. France and Spain B. The Low countries and Britain C. Prussia and Saxony D. Poland E. Russia

  32. 41. Typically the putting-out industry employed A. only women. B. rural families. C. urban workers. D. men and older boys.

  33. 42. Virginia plantation owners and New England merchants were A. protected and restricted by the mercantile system. B. not an integral part of the mercantile system. C. both damaged by the mercantile system. D. the greatest beneficiaries of the mercantile system.

  34. 42. Virginia plantation owners and New England merchants were A. protected and restricted by the mercantile system. B. not an integral part of the mercantile system. C. both damaged by the mercantile system. D. the greatest beneficiaries of the mercantile system.

  35. 44. The Navigation Acts were a form of economic warfare that initially targeted the A. Dutch. B. French. C. Spanish. D. colonists.

  36. 46. The theaters of operations for the century-long competition between England and France included all of the following EXCEPT A. North America. B. India. C. Europe. D. South America.

  37. 47. The asiento was A. a tax on imports into the Spanish colonies. B. the upper class in Brazil. C. the West African slave trade. D. the system of debt peonage in South and Central America.

  38. 48. The decisive round in the colonial conflict between England and France was the A. Seven Years' War. B. Thirty Years' War. C. War of the Austrian Succession. D. War of the Spanish Succession.

  39. 49. The British won the American component of the Seven Years' War because A. the French military leadership was ineffective. B. their Prussian ally won the European component. C. the French did not have an adequate navy. D. they diverted men and money from Europe to the American theater.

  40. 49. The British won the American component of the Seven Years' War because A. the French military leadership was ineffective. B. their Prussian ally won the European component. C. the French did not have an adequate navy. D. they diverted men and money from Europe to the American theater.

  41. 50. The factor that most limited the growth of industry in the British colonies was A. a lack of raw materials. B. a lack of investment capital. • a labor shortage. D. the Navigation Acts.

  42. 50. The factor that most limited the growth of industry in the British colonies was A. a lack of raw materials. B. a lack of investment capital. • a labor shortage. D. the Navigation Acts.

  43. 51. Most British colonists were motivated to settle in the colonies by A. political freedom. B. religious freedom. • a sense of adventure. D. the availability of cheap land.

  44. 54. According to Adam Smith, harmony and progress would result from A. laws to regulate economic behavior. B. the decline of warfare and improved health care. C. the government's maintenance of civil order and public works. D. the pursuit of self-interest in a competitive market.

  45. 55. Spanish-American society included all of the following groups EXCEPT A. Creoles. B. mestizos. C. Indians. D. conquistadors.

  46. 56. Which of the following was a major characteristic of the English monarchy in the eighteenth century? A. A return to its “divine right” position of the seventeenth century B. A steadily widening discrepancy between its theoretical and its real power C. Its growth in power because of its many victories over the French D. Its refusal to support the emerging cabinet system E. Its growing wealth due to effective taxation policies.

  47. 58. The first European state to mandate compulsory elementary education was A. Prussia. B. the Netherlands. C. England. • France.

  48. 58. The first European state to mandate compulsory elementary education was A. Prussia. B. the Netherlands. C. England. • France.

  49. 59. The reading material of the popular classes included all of the following EXCEPT A. practical material, such as almanacs. B. entertaining, humorous, escapist stories. • chapbooks with religious contents. • works on Christian theology.

  50. 59. The reading material of the popular classes included all of the following EXCEPT A. practical material, such as almanacs. B. entertaining, humorous, escapist stories. • chapbooks with religious contents. • works on Christian theology.