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The Age of Napoleon. Ch 11 Sec 3. Napoleon Bonaparte. Born 1769 Island of Corsica Sent to military school at age 9 Graduated at 16 Became lieutenant. Military Success. Hero of the Hour Oct. 1795 Defended Nat’l Convention from royalist rebels Savior of French Republic.

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napoleon bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Born 1769
    • Island of Corsica
  • Sent to military school at age 9
    • Graduated at 16
    • Became lieutenant
military success
Military Success
  • Hero of the Hour
    • Oct. 1795
      • Defended Nat’l Convention from royalist rebels
      • Savior of French Republic

1796 - Directory appoints to lead French Army against Austria

    • Crushed Austrian threat to France
    • Went to Egypt but was defeated by British navy
    • Kept reports out of press
consul and emperor
Consul and Emperor
  • Coup d’Etat – sudden seize of power
    • 1799 – Directory lost control of political situation in France
      • Lost confidence of French people

Nov. 9, 1799 – Napoleon put in charge of army

    • Troops drove out members of Nat’l Assembly
    • Legislature dissolves Directory
    • Creates three consuls– Napoleon is one
    • Assumes dictatorial power as first consul
napoleon s domestic policies
Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
  • 1800 – plebiscite approves new constitution
    • Vote of the people
    • Constitution gives all power to Napoleon
peace with the church
Peace with the Church
  • Concordat w/Pope Pius VII (agreement) - 1801
    • Gov’t recognized influence of church on society
    • Rejected church control in nat’l affairs
    • People that had bought Church lands got to keep them
codification of the laws
Codification of the Laws
  • Napoleonic Code (Civil Code)
    • Uniform set of laws
    • Eliminated injustice
      • Equality of all citizens before the law
      • Right of individual to choose a profession
      • Religious toleration
      • Abolition of serfdom
a new bureaucracy
A New Bureaucracy
  • Napoleon establishes order and stability
    • Supports strong central gov’t, stable economy, and equality in taxation
      • Didn’t care about rank in society or birth
    • Set up tax-collecting system and national bank
      • Promoted sound financial management
      • Better control of gov’t

Created a new aristocracy

    • Based on meritorious service to the nation
    • 1808-1814 – created 3200 nobles
      • 60% were military officers
      • 40% civil service or state and local officials

Reduced gov’t corruption

    • Dismissed corrupt officials
    • Established lycees – gov’t-run public schools
      • Open to male students of all backgrounds
      • Jobs given based on merit, not family connections

Does the image portray Napoleon as a positive or negative person?

  • How can you tell? What images/colors/symbols lead you to believe this?
  • Was this created by a person inside or outside of France?
preserver of the revolution
Preserver of the Revolution?
  • Good
    • Equality before the law
    • Gov’t careers open to anyone
  • Bad
    • Limited liberty
    • Promoted order and authority over individual rights
    • Restricted freedom of speech and press
      • gov’t inspected all manuscripts and mail

Napoleon Crowned as Emperor

    • 1804 – declared himself emperor
      • Supported by French voters
      • Crowned himself, instead of pope
building the empire
Building the Empire
  • 1799 – France at war w/ Russia, GB and Austria
    • Began signing peace treaties in 1802
  • 1803 - GB, Russia, Austria and Sweden form coalition against France
  • Takes army against coalition
    • Crushes opposition
    • Unpredictable
    • Rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia sign treaties
loss of american territories
Loss of American Territories
  • Napoleon sells Louisiana
    • United States buys in 1803 - $15 million
    • $211,699,586.02
    • Gained $ and punished British enemies

1807-1812 Napoleon is master of Europe

  • Three major parts of Grand Empire
    • French Empire
    • Dependent states
    • Allied states
  • French Empire
    • Enlarged France extending to Rhine River
    • Also included parts of northern Italy

Dependent states

    • Areas ruled by Napoleon’s relatives
    • Spain, Holland, Italy, Swiss Republic, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine
  • Allied states
    • Defeated by Napoleon and forced to join fight against GB
    • Prussia, Austria, Russia

French Empire

    • 1812 – few countries free of Napoleon’s control
      • GB, Ottoman Empire, Sweden, Portugal
    • Conquered people feel loyalty to homeland
    • Huge and unstable empire
spreading the principles of the revolution
Spreading the Principles of the Revolution
  • French ideals spread throughout Grand Empire
    • Legal equality
    • Religious toleration
    • Economic freedom
  • Destroy old order in inner core and dependent states
    • Nobility and clergy lose power and privileges
british resistance
British Resistance
  • Battle of Trafalgar - 1805
    • Only battle lost by Napoleon to Coalition
      • Major naval defeat – British Admiral Horatio Nelson
    • French fleet destroyed
      • Assured supremacy of GB on the seas
      • Forced Napoleon to give up plans of invading GB

The Continental System

    • Nov. 1806 – Napoleon orders blockade of GB
      • Prevent all trade and communication w/other countries
    • Continental system
      • Make continental Europe more self-sufficient
      • Intended to destroy economy of GB

Blockade unsuccessful

    • Smugglers bring cargo from Britain to Europe
    • Allies disregarded his orders
    • New markets in Middle East and Latin America
  • Britain Blockades France
    • Stopped neutral ships bound for Europe
  • Hurts Napoleon more than GB
  • Sense of a unique identity of a group of people
  • As Napoleon conquered, people became united in their hatred of him
  • Increased their sense of national identity
    • Gave them more power
invasion of russia
Invasion of Russia
  • 1812 – thirst for power leads to disastrous mistake
    • Alexander I, czar of Russia, refuses to stop selling grain to GB
    • Napoleon and Alexander suspect each other of having plans for Poland
    • Napoleon decides to invade Russia

Jun 1812 – Napoleon leads Grand Army into Russia

    • Many troops were not French
    • Feel little loyalty
  • Scorched-Earth Policy
    • Russian army retreats toward Moscow
    • Burn crops and land so French cannot live off land
    • Soldiers desert French army

Sept. 7, 1812 – Battle of Borodino

    • Battle swings between both sides
    • Russia eventually retreats and Napoleon takes Moscow
    • Alexander torches Moscow so Napoleon couldn’t have it
    • Napoleon stays for 5 weeks

October – Napoleon orders return to France

    • Begins the retreat with 100,000
    • Snow fall begins in November and soldiers freeze
    • Napoleon returns to France in January 1813 w/40,000 troops
the final defeat
The Final Defeat
  • Coalition Defeats Napoleon
    • Fights Coalition of GB, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden
    • Napoleon raises another army in a few months
      • Untrained soldiers
      • Battle of Lepzig – Oct. 1813 – army severely beaten
    • Empire Crumbles
      • Jan 1814 – Prussians, Russians, and Austrians march on Paris
      • March – Czar Alexander I and Frederick William III of Prussia march through Paris

April 1814 – Napoleon gives up throne

    • Exiled to Elba – island off coast of Italy

The Hundred Days

    • Louis XVIII takes thrown
      • Brother of Louis XVI
      • Unpopular among peasants
      • Suspected of wanting to undo reforms of revolution
    • Napoleon escapes from Elba
      • Thousands welcome him in Paris
      • Volunteers join his army
      • Napoleon regains position as emperor

Battle of Waterloo – June 18, 1815

    • British army defeats Napoleon
      • Prussian army helped

Ends Hundred Days

    • Napoleon’s second reign as Emperor
    • Napoleon exiled to St. Helena
      • island in Atlantic Ocean
    • Dies after 6 years
    • 1821 at age of 53

After defeat of Napoleon

    • Goal of new European order
      • Collective security and stability for entire continent
    • Congress of Vienna
      • Series of meetings in Vienna to set up policies to achieve this goal
metternich restores stability
Metternich Restores Stability
  • “Five Great Powers”
    • Prussia, Russia, Austria
      • represented by rulers
    • GB, France
      • represented by foreign ministers
    • Klemens von Metternich
      • Foreign minister of Austria

Three Goals of Metternich

    • Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries
    • Restore balance of power so that no country would be threat
    • Restore Europe’s royal families to thrones held before Napoleon – legitimacy

Containment of France

    • Congress makes weak countries around France stronger
    • Allow countries of Europe to contain France

Balance of Power

    • Leaders of Europe don’t want to go too far
      • Too severe – France may take revenge
      • Break up France – another country might become too strong
    • Easy on French
      • Give up all territories Napoleon took
      • France remains intact
      • Keeps overseas possessions, army, and independent gov’t
  • Based on tradition and belief in value of social stability
  • Obedience to public authority
  • Relied heavily on influence of religion
  • Hated revolutions
  • Unwilling to accept demands of people
    • Want individual rights or representative government
principle of intervention
Principle of Intervention
  • Great powers of Europe had right to send armies into other countries
    • Restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones
  • GB refuses this
    • Doesn’t think great powers should interfere in other nations internal affairs


    • Powers affirm principle of legitimacy
      • Agreement that as many as possible of the rulers Napoleon had driven out be restored
      • France – Louis XVIII given throne
      • Bourbon rulers of Spain and Kingdom of Two Sicilies
      • Former rulers of the German States

Congress of Vienna is political triumph

    • Fair decisions = no grudges
    • Nations of entire continent were cooperating
    • Peace lasts from 1815-1853