NIST’s Program in Nanotechnology Michael Casassa Director, Program Office National Institute of Standards and Technology National Planning Workshop – Nanoscale Science and Engineering for Agriculture and Food Systems November 18, 2002
Metrology: The science of measurement; a system of measures “When you can measure what you are speaking about, you know something about it. But when you cannot measure it, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind. It may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely advanced to the stage of science.” William Thomson, Lord Kelvin 1824 - 1907 NIST works closely with scientists and industry to develop the Nation’s metrology infrastructure necessary for scientific, technical, and economic advances.
National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST’s mission is to develop and promote measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. NIST Assets Include: • 3,000 employees • 1,600 guest researchers • $820 million annual budget • NIST Laboratories -- National measurement standards • Advanced Technology Program -- $640 million current R&D partnerships with industry • Manufacturing Extension Partnership -- 400 centers nationwide to help small manufacturers • Baldrige National Quality Award
NIST Laboratories Multidisciplinary expertise to develop measurements and standards to enable: • Science • Technology Innovation • Trade • Public benefit • NIST plans and works in close collaboration with customers: • Industry • Other agencies • State and local governments • Measurement laboratories • Standards organizations
Grand Challenge: Instrumentation and Metrology Measurements & Standards for Nanotechnology • Measurements • critical to understanding of new phenomena • needed to control production, ensure product quality, and enable different parts to work together. • size and complexity of nanoscale objects will make the development of new measurement technologies more critical than ever. • Facilities • Standards and traceability • essential for trade.
Grand Challenge: Instrumentation and Metrology Measurement issues for new analytical tools and supporting infrastructure. • Resolution • molecular to atomic spatial scales • high speed temporal scales • Sensitivity and Specificity • molecular or atomic level sensitivity and specificity with simultaneous imaging and identification • simultaneous multiple spectroscopies for chemical and physical properties • 3-D characterization capability, atom by atom, or molecule by molecule, over many thousands of atoms. • Improvements must be made in the physical understanding of current instruments • Supporting models, methods, standards, data
Unique NIST Measurement and Research Facilities Advanced Measurement Laboratory World’s premier measurement research facility (air quality, temperature, vibration, humidity) Completion targeted for 2004 Advanced Chemical Sciences Laboratory Provides critical capabilities for nanobiotechnology and analytical chemistry research NIST Center for Neutron Research Most versatile neutron facility in the U.S. with over 1750 annual users
Measurement Standards and Traceability Our traditional view of measurements and standards: Primary Labs Comparisons Traceability Secondary Labs and Customers How does nanotechnology change this view?
Standards and Traceability for Nanotechnology Challenge: Deliver nanoscale traceability to the factory floor Opportunity: Develop quantum standards based on nano-phenomena • Electricity • use quantized electron devices to create known electrical currents (already realized!) • Mass • use macromolecules of known mass as building blocks of a gram • Chemical Concentration • use single known molecules as building blocks for materials with known composition • Distance • use lattice spacing in pure crystals
NIST Role in International Standards for Nanotechnology • Formal documentary standards • Committees developing draft standards for commercial nanoscale instrumentation • Standards support for industry/trade associations • Atom-based dimensional standards for linewidth, step height and geometry of grids • Small force measurements down to nanonewton • Coordination of the National Metrology Institutions • Mutual Recognition Agreements: International Committee on Weights and Measures (CIPM) • Line scale comparisons for 290 nm and 700 nm 1D grating measurements • Comparisons on nanometer step heights, linewidths, and 2D grids
Strategic Directions • Nanomaterial characterization – $12.2M • Nanobiotechnology - $3.6M • Basic nanoscale metrology - $6.9M • Quantum devices and measurements - $11.1M • Nanomagnetics - $7.2M • Nanoelectronics - $9.6M FY02 levels of effort
Nanomaterials Characterization Metrology for nanostructures and nanocomposites: • Measurement and characterization: • Structure • Composition • Properties – electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical… • Process control: • Integration and arrangement of structures • Defects and impurities Composition map of a Mn-C-O particle taken by energy-filtered TEM
Nanomaterials Characterization Cluster Beam Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) • Single ion beam SIMS: • Current industry tool for characterizing surfaces • NIST metrology work: • pioneered use cluster SIMS • improved accuracy • allow depth profiling with sub-nm resolution • Recent Accomplishment: • Characterized high explosive particles in support of airport security activities Cluster SIMS secondary ion image of the intact molecular ions from a mixture of RDX and PETN explosive particles dispersed on a silicon collector surface.
Nanobiotechnology Metrology for: • Single molecule measurement • Bio-NEMS • Tissue engineering • Characterization of bioactive systems and bio-inorganic interfaces • Single molecule spectroscopy • Assemblage of bio-active 3-D structures
Nanobiotechnology Interfaces: Electronic, Optical, Mechanical, and Fluidic Nanofabrication NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS) Nanofluidics NanoBioTechnology Electronic, Optical and Mechanical Measurements Biomimetic Surfaces Fabrication and Measurement Suite on a Common Platform
Nanobiotechnology Dye molecule orientation probes nanoscale environment. b) stationary; c)-g) rotated molecules Metrology Work: • Single molecule probes • Structure and dynamics of single RNA molecules • Fluidic systems to transport single molecules • Reaction rates and dynamics of individual biomolecules • Recent Accomplishment: • Technique for rapid evaluation of materials at the nanoscale using dye molecules
Nanobiotechnology Proposed electrical characterization of discrete DNA segments fed through a nanopore manufactured with NEMS technology • Use of single model biological pore to: • Understand physics of DNA & polymer transport • Detect specific analytes • Design method for characterizing nanopores • Understand principles of an ultra-rapid DNA sequencing engine
Basic Nanoscale Metrology Measurements based on fundamental quantities and principles • Standard reference materials and artifacts for calibrating nanoscale analytical instruments • Metrology for determination of dimensions, microforce and physical quantities • Methods and procedures to measure time-domain properties (µs to fs) Schematic of user-interfaced instrument for 10 nm accuracy 2-D feature placement measurements
Basic Nanoscale Metrology Nanocircuit that pumps one electron at a time to a capacitor High Precision Electrical Metrology • NIST metrology work: • Single electron-tunneling based technologies • Fundamental representation of electrical quantities • Capacitance standard by counting the number of electrons in a nanocircuit • Quantum current standard under development • Recent Accomplishment: • Determined capacitance standard can be run in a compact, transportable refrigerator • Quantified error mechanism for standard – predict precision of one part in 107
Quantum Devices and Measurements • Metrology for nanodevices dependent on quantum interactions: • Electrical and electronic properties of quantum devices • Nanostructure and magnetism • Quantum and spin electronics • Laser cooled and trapped atoms and ions: • Quantum computing • Atom optics Schematic of NIST Nanoscale Physics Facility for quantum and spin electronics metrology
Quantum Devices and Measurements Quantum computing using laser cooled atoms and ions • NIST Pioneering Work: • “qubits”: confined single atoms and ions for use as bits of quantum information • High information density – superposition of states • Two Nobel Prizes in Physics: 1997 and 2001 Atoms trapped in potential wells by laser cooling • Recent Accomplishment: • Move ions between traps without causing heating • Goal by 2006: • Demonstrate a 10 Qubit register
Nanomagnetics Metrology of nanoscale magnetic structures: • Imaging • Determination and modeling of nanoscale properties • Mechanisms and limitations of dynamics Normal modes of the magnetization in a 20 nm thick Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) thin film oscillating at 9 GHz.
Nanoelectronics 100 nm Metrology Issues Related to: • Nanolithography • Molecular electronics • Electrical test measurements • Nano-component fabrication • System assembly Superconformal electrodeposition of Cu interconnects
NIST’s Role in Nanotechnology Nanoscale measurement & standards development U.S. measurement & standards infrastructure Commercialization of nanotechnologies Facilitate international trade