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Regents Earth Science

Regents Earth Science

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Regents Earth Science

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  1. Regents Earth Science Topic II: Measuring the Earth

  2. Is the Earth Round? • Not exactly………so Columbus wasn’t right!

  3. The Earth appears round but when “measured”, it is actually flattened at the poles and bulging at the equator… ….**making the Earth a slightly, slightly, slightly, slightly Oblate Spheroid This is not how It looks!!!!

  4. How can we tell that the shape of Earth is nearly a sphere? • Photographs from space (#1)

  5. Masts of ships appearing to “sink” as they travel past the horizon

  6. Gravity Measurements (more gravitational pull at the poles—closer to center of Earth = higher weight)

  7. Observations of Polaris (the North Star)

  8. Spheres of the Earth: • Atmosphere: shell of gases that surround the Earth. • It is layered into zones. Each zone has a specific temperature, and composition

  9. Hydrosphere: all bodies of water on Earth (oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water)—covers 70% of Earth’s surface

  10. Lithosphere: solid portion of the Earth (rock and soil layer)

  11. ESRT’s Cover

  12. How do you locate Positions on Earth? • Coordinate System: a grid of imaginary lines that are used to locate a point on a two-dimensional surface (a map)

  13. Latitude-Longitude System: the most commonly used coordinate system used for the Earth. This system is based on observations of the sun and other stars.

  14. Lines of Latitude (Parallels): • Measures distance north or south of the equator (0° • 90° at Poles • Parallel

  15. Lines of Longitude (Meridians): • Measures distances east or west of the Prime Meridian (Prime Meridian is 0--180 is highest) • Lines connect at the north and south poles

  16. How do you determine Latitude? • The angle that Polaris makes with the horizon is equal to the person’s latitude (Polaris never moves) • Altitude = Latitude

  17. Polaris Facts: • Only seen in the Northern Hemisphere (not south of the Equator) • Points Due (exactly) North • NOT the brightest star in the sky! • Use Pointer Stars to Find • Directly above North Pole “Big Dipper”—easy to see

  18. How do you determine Longitude? • Find the time difference between your local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and then multiply by 15 (Greenwich is at 0 Longitude) • This works because the Earth rotates 15 every hour and the Time Zones are 15 longitude apart (24 total, 1 hour apart)

  19. World Time Zones

  20. If your time is EARLIER than the time given for GMT, then you are WEST of the Prime Meridian • If your time is LATER than the time given for GMT, then you are EAST of the Prime Meridian

  21. U.S. Time Zones

  22. Mapping • Topographic Maps: shows the shape of Earth’s surface by using contour lines (the shape of the lines indicate the shape of the land)

  23. What are Contour Lines? • lines of equal elevation (height above sea level) **there are other lines on other types of maps as well (Isotherms: equal temperature / Isobars: equal pressure)

  24. What to look for when looking at Topographic Maps: • Contour Interval: difference in height between two adjacent contour lines Index Contour: Bold lines with elevation values Contour Interval = 20 ft.

  25. Scale: distances on a map represent the actual distance on the ground

  26. Map Direction: often indicated by some type of arrow pointing north (if there is no arrow, then north is the top of the map)

  27. Benchmark: a metal marker placed in the ground that shows the exact elevation. ..on a topo map, BM X (Elevation)

  28. Gradient: rate at which a field changes from place to place—also called slope or steepness Change in Field Value Gradient = Distance