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Organizations Through the Eyes of a Project Manager. Chapter 9. Quality. Introduction. Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of intelligent effort. John Ruskin English critic, essayist, & reformer (1819 - 1900). Introduction. Quality

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Organizations through the eyes of a project manager l.jpg

Organizations Through the Eyes of a Project Manager

Chapter 9. Quality

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Introduction

  • Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of intelligent effort.

    • John RuskinEnglish critic, essayist, & reformer (1819 - 1900)

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Introduction

  • Quality

    • Ensures that a product meets certain specifications

    • Involves uniformity and repeatability

    • Results in customer satisfaction

  • A process that

    • Retains existing customers

    • Wins back lost customers

    • Creates new customers

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Shewhart and Juran

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • 1920, Western Electric

    • Shewhart pioneered statistical controls to minimize defects

  • Deming based much of his work on Shewhart

  • Deming-Shewhart cycle

    • Plan – Do – Check - Act

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

Plan

Do

Movement towards continuous quality improvement

Check

Act

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Normal variation: requires fundamental change to system

Special cause: find and eliminate

Special cause as a pattern

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long

http://www.maaw.info/ArticleSummaries/ArtSumFrancisGerwels89.htm


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Copyright 2004 N.B. Long

http://www.maaw.info/ArticleSummaries/ArtSumFrancisGerwels89.htm


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Final inspection is too costly and too late

  • Plan-Do-Check-Act shifts focus

    • Don’t detect defects in finished products

    • Instead, examine the process continuously, looking for ways to prevent problems

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Juran

    • Followed Deming to Japan in 1954

    • Statistics-based quality

    • Developed “Quality Trilogy:

      • Quality Planning

      • Quality Improvement

      • Quality Control

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Planning

    • Identify the customers

    • Determine their needs

    • Develop a product that fulfills those needs

    • Optimize the product

      • Meets customer’s needs and the organization’s needs

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Improvement

    • Develop a process to produce the product

    • Optimize it

  • Control

    • Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection

    • Transfer the process to Operations

    • Optimize it

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Juran:

    • Quality requires

      • Planning

      • Teamwork

      • Problem solving

    • Corporations must integrate quality into the overall corporate plan

  • Quality means “fitness for a purpose”

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Feigenbaum

    • Total Quality Control

    • Everyone was responsible for quality

    • Quality meant “best for the customer’s use and selling price”

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Crosby

    • Four absolutes:

      • Conformance to requirements

      • Prevention is the system by which quality is achieved

      • The standard is zero defects

      • The measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance (i.e., poor quality costs money)

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

  • Ishikawa

    • Inadequate quality has four main causes

      • Materials

      • Processes

      • Equipment

      • Measurement

    • Cause-and-effect or “fishbone” diagram

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality “Gurus”

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality and the PM

  • Payoff for continuous quality improvement?

    • Higher productivity

    • Lower costs

    • Higher quality

  • Employees at all levels must be involved

  • Perfection not necessary – only continual movement towards the ideal

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Policy

  • Quest for quality begins with a policy

    • Sets forth principles of operational practice

  • Organization’s processes and procedures should be uniform and consistent with each other

  • Management commitment is crucial

    • Workers are good at detecting BS

    • Sacrificing quality to achieve a sales goal or a bonus tells how management really feels – workers will follow that lead

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Policy

  • Customers may review quality policy before ordering

    • An established policy may be a key factor in a decision to buy

    • No policy may indicate a poor attitude towards quality

    • What is a customer to think?

      • What would you think?

    • Reality must match intention

      • Otherwise …

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long



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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Motivation may be internal

    • The costs of poor quality are too high

  • Or external

    • Customers may demand a quality standard like ISO 9000

  • Regardless, documented quality is essential

  • What elements of an organization need quality management?

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Examples of quality topics for IT

    • Policies for use of computers

    • Networking

    • Internet access

    • Security (firewalls, viruses, etc.)

    • Access to e-mail

    • Data backup

    • Business records and storage

    • Program maintenance and upgrade

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Quality management processes

    • Planning

      • What standards will be put in place

    • Assurance

      • Determines how implementation will be accomplished

    • Control

      • Monitoring activity that measures and evaluates data

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Planning

    • Identify quality standards relevant to the project

    • External

      • Derived from

        • Professional

        • International

        • Local, state, federal

        • CUSTOMER

    • Internal

      • Departmental or organizational methodology

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Examples of internal standards (IT)

    • Educational criteria required for a job

    • Checklists for design review of software development

    • Software installation procedures

    • Use of development tools

    • Testing methodology

    • Documentation

    • User interface

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Quality plans clarify expectations

    • Stakeholders can refer to a known quantity

    • Employees understand what is expected of them at each stage of a project

    • Everyone understands design requirements

      • Like a freeze at some point

      • Or the procedures to effect a change

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Quality and changes

    • Changes happen but must be controlled

      • Only for good reason(s)

      • Approval cycle required

      • Supporting documentation must be supplied

    • Why? Change may affect multiple departments

      • They must be informed

      • Have a chance to comment

    • Formal process needed to control this

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Quality and documentation

    • Organization should have a plan for managing documentation

      • Requirements

      • Drawings

      • Manuals

      • Test plans

    • Plan establishes paper trail

      • Everyone knows where to find & how to use documentation

      • Historical record

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Help for establishing quality plans

    • IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

    • SEI – Software Engineering Institute

    • ESI – European Software Institute

    • ISO – International Standards Organization

  • Others

    • Malcolm Baldrige Award

    • Six Sigma

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • IEEE Software Quality Plans

    • Set of software life-cycle standards

    • Describes

      • How management will conduct, track, and report on a project

      • How technical staff will perform work

    • Can use the ones that fit your project

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • IEEE Software Quality Plans (cont.)

    • SQAP – Software Quality Assurance Plan

      • Contract between project team and QA department

      • Identifies specific tasks QA will perform to support the project

        • Review plans

        • Identify standards, practices, and conventions

        • Describe the configuration management activities (maintains documents under change control)

        • Audits

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • IEEE Software Quality Plans (cont.)

    • SRS – Software Requirements Specification

      • Formalizes customer requirements as systematic and comprehensive

      • That is, it defines the system to meet the customer’s goals

      • Gives the customer something tangible to formally approve

      • Ensures developers have correctly interpreted the customer’s needs

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • IEEE Software Quality Plans (cont.)

    • SDD – Software Design Specification

      • Describes internal design features of each system component

      • Provides naming and coding standards

      • Describes interdependencies

      • Describes interfaces

        • System

        • User

      • Basis for coding and testing

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • IEEE Software Quality Plans (cont.)

    • SVVP – Software Verification and Validation Plan

      • Verification

        • Process of

          • Reviewing

          • Inspecting

          • Testing

        • To ensure compliance with specification

      • Validation

        • Ensures compliance with user requirements

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • SEI (Software Engineering Institute)

    • History

      • 1970’s & 80’s project chronically behind, over budget & did not meet user needs

      • Average: year late & 100% over budget!

        • One 4-year project took 7 years and nothing was ever delivered on time

    • DOD-funded

    • Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh

    • Capability Maturity Model®

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • SEI (cont.)

    • CMM assists managers in judging the maturity of an organization’s software development processes

    • Accomplished by categorizing the organization’s processes

    • Places organization’s processes in 1 of 5 “maturity levels”

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • SEI (cont.)

    • 1 – Initial

      • Ad hoc, chaotic processes

      • Little is defined

      • Success depends on individuals and heroic efforts

    • 2 – Repeatable

      • Basic PM processes in place

        • Tracks cost, schedule, and functionality

      • Can repeat earlier successes if new project is similar

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • SEI (cont.)

    • 3 – Defined

      • Process is documented, standardized, and integrated into the organization

      • All projects use the approved process for developing and maintaining software

    • 4 – Managed

      • Detailed measures of software process and product quality are collected

      • Processes are quantitatively understood and controlled

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • SEI (cont.)

    • 5 – Optimizing

      • Processes are continually improved

        • Quantitative feedback

      • Innovative ideas and technologies are tested and used

    • With CMM, managers can predict software development times, control costs, and deliver products of superior quality

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • SEI (cont.)

    • CMM

      • Describes processes in terms of key practices

      • Practices describe the infrastructure and activities that contribute the most

      • Promotes evolution not revolution

    • Employees must be trained in CMM

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • SEI (cont.)

    • Most small organizations were at level 1

      • Poor technical/managerial plans or schedules

      • Unwilling/unable to manage budget

      • Requirements are poorly defined (fuzzy)

    • www.sei.cmu.edu

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long






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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • ISO (International Standards Org.)

    • Worldwide federation (140 countries)

    • “…promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services…

    • Direct outgrowth of Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Feigenbaum

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • ISO (cont.)

    • Organization must employ processes that describe and control every element of product life cycle

    • Employees must be familiar with quality processes

    • Every organizations says it practices quality

    • How does one prove that it does?

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • ISO (cont.)

    • Certification achieved by external audit

    • Major questions are

      • Are quality processes and standards in place?

      • Does the organization practice what it preaches or not?

        • Many processes are unique to a specific organization so process standardization is not the issue

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • ISO (cont.)

    • Many different ISO standards

    • Old 9000 series

      • Deals with managing quality in organizations

      • 9001: Business processes range from design and development to production, installation, and service

      • 9002: Production, installation, and service only

    • All require extensive employee training

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • ISO (cont.)

    • Marketing benefit from ISO certification

      • Many EU companies will not do business without an ISO certification

      • Often see ISO standards mentioned in advertising

    • New ISO 9000:2000

      • Defines eight quality management principles

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • ISO (cont.)

    • ISO 9000:2000

      • Focus on customer

      • Provide leadership

      • Involve organization’s personnel

      • Process approach to improving quality

      • System approach to management

      • Continuous improvement

      • Factual approach to decision making

      • Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • ISO (cont.)

    • ISO and CMM influence each other

    • ISO 9000 roughly equivalent to Level-2 CMM

    • CMM Level-3 likely to be certified as ISO 9001

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Malcolm Baldridge Award

    • Named after Secretary of Commerce from 1981 to 1987

    • Award enacted into law in 1987

    • Purpose was to encourage U.S. industry to pursue competitive improvements

      • Primarily quality of products and services

    • Administered within Dept. of Commerce

      • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Malcolm Baldridge Award (cont.)

    • Winners required to share non-proprietary information on

      • Successful strategies and actions

      • Benefits derived

    • Eligibility in five categories

      • Manufacturing

      • Service

      • Small businesses

      • Education

      • Healthcare

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Malcolm Baldridge Award (cont.)

  • 1.0 Leadership

    • 1.1 Organizational Leadership

    • 1.2 Public Responsibility and Citizenship

  • 2.0 Strategic Planning

    • 2.1 Strategy Development

    • 2.2 Strategy Deployment

  • 3.0 Customer and Market Focus

    • 3.1 Customer and Market Knowledge

    • 3.2 Customer Satisfaction and Relationships

  • 4.0 Information and Analysis

    • 4.1 Measurement of Organizational Performance

    • 4.2 Analysis of Organizational Performance

  • 5.0 Human Resource Focus

    • 5.1 Work Systems

    • 5.2 Employee Education, Training, and Development

    • 5.3 Employee Well Being and Satisfaction

  • 6.0 Process Management

    • 6.1 Product and Service Processes

    • 6.2 Support Processes

    • 6.3 Supplier and Partnering Processes

  • 7.0 Business Results

    • 7.1 Customer Focused Results

    • 7.2 Financial and Market Results

    • 7.3 Human Resource Results

    • 7.4 Supplier and Partner Results

    • 7.5 Organizational Effectiveness Results

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Six Sigma

    • Also concerned with customer satisfaction, process improvement, data analysis

    • Specifically focuses on reducing defects

    • Based on statistics

      • Normal distribution curve

      • Standard deviation

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

Average

A lot

How many

A little

Really

Short!

Really

Tall!

5’ 10”

Height

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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6σ

99.72%

Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

13.59%

2.14%

34.13%

μ

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Six Sigma

    • 6σ means about 3.4 defects per million

    • For comparison, 4σ means

      • 20,000 lost pieces of mail every hour

      • 5,000 incorrect surgeries per week

      • 200,000 incorrect prescriptions per year

      • No electricity 7 hours a month

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Six Sigma (cont.)

    • Typical defect rates

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Six Sigma (cont.)

    • Requires extensive employee training

    • Levels of individual accomplishment named for martial arts

      • Green Belt

        • Smaller project leadership

      • Black Belt

        • Leadership

      • Master Black Belt

        • Teacher

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Planning, Assurance, Control

  • Six Sigma (cont.)

    • Uses many statistical tools

      • Histograms

        • Product variance

      • Ishikawa (fishbone) diagrams

        • Root cause analysis

      • Graphs

        • Plot output per unit of time

      • Scatterplots

        • Plots variation relative to a reference

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Assurance

  • Quality plans involve employees following specific actions to ensure quality

  • Quality assurance involves creating a culture

    • Use of reliable processes

    • Systems of checks and feedback

  • QA emphasizes the policies and procedures that quantify organizational performance

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Assurance

  • Often means creating forms and checklists for employees to follow

  • Creates a paper trail

    • Confirms employee’s followed correct procedures

    • Permits gathering of data for statistical tests

    • Allows internal or external audits

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Assurance

  • All QA is TQM based

    • Everyone participates

    • Improvement is continuous

    • Management is supportive

    • Communication is open

      • Everyone’s ideas should be considered

      • Avoid the Abilene paradox

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Abilene Paradox

  • 1974, Professor Jerry Harvey of George Washington University

  • Four adults are sitting on a porch …

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Abilene Paradox

  • Members individually (and privately) agree on their situation

  • Members (privately) agree on what it would take to deal with the situation

  • Members fail to communicate their beliefs with one another

  • Based on inaccurate beliefs the members make a collective decision that leads to action

    • The action leads to them understanding the true situation

  • Frustration, anger, dissatisfaction with organization are experienced

  • Will be repeated unless members understand how they got achieved “mismanaged agreement”

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Control

  • Controlling the down side

    • Stipulating how many defects are acceptable

  • In manufacturing, QA involves

    • Inspecting products

    • Measuring variations from norms

    • Collecting and analyzing data

  • At selected stages, the product is tested

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Control

  • If out-of-tolerance, must find out why

    • Poor design?

    • Worn tools?

    • Unclear directions?

    • Tired workers?

    • Defective material?

  • In service environment, customer is queried

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Quality Control

  • Research methods include

    • Focus groups

    • Surveys

  • “How did you like our service?” forms

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Responsibility for Quality

  • Regardless of organizational approach, the PM is responsible for quality

  • Must work with

    • Stakeholders

    • Functional departments

    • Organization’s QA department

    • Management

    • Workers

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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Responsibility for Quality

  • PM must

    • Identify quality-related problems

    • Recommend solutions

    • Execute solutions

    • Monitor results

    • Document

  • Juran: Quality doesn’t happen, it must be planned

Copyright 2004 N.B. Long


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