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Unit 2 Notes: Neurotransmitters. (1) Basic Function. Released from Axon Terminals Travel across synapse Bind to: Other Neuron Effector Organ Stimulates: Another Nerve Impulse Organ Movement/Functioning. (2) Serotonin. Digestive stimulation Positive, Dominant Emotions: Happiness

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1 basic function
(1) Basic Function
  • Released from Axon Terminals
  • Travel across synapse
  • Bind to:
    • Other Neuron
    • Effector Organ
  • Stimulates:
    • Another Nerve Impulse
    • Organ Movement/Functioning
2 serotonin
(2) Serotonin
  • Digestive stimulation
  • Positive, Dominant Emotions:
    • Happiness
    • Confidence
    • Social Comfort
  • Stimulates growth and development
3 acetylcholine ach
(3) Acetylcholine (Ach)
  • Stimulates muscle contraction
  • Stimulates REM sleep
  • Stimulates sensory neurons
4 norepinephrine epinephrine
(4) Norepinephrine & Epinephrine
  • Increases alertness
  • Increases heart rate, blood pressure
  • Increases respiratory rate
  • Related to memory formation
5 dopamine
(5) Dopamine
  • Inhibititory
  • Feelings of happiness, pleasure and content
  • Increased social behavior
  • Muscle movement control
6 glutamate gaba
(6) Glutamate & GABA
  • GABA = Gamma Aminobutyric Acid
    • Inhibits excitatory neurotransmitters
    • Decreases anxiety and paranoia
    • Maintains proper firing of nerve impulses(Lacking?  Epilepsy)
  • Glutamate:
    • Type of GABA
    • Linked to memory
    • Abundance  Kills brain cells  Brain Disease
7 endorphins enkephalins
(7) Endorphins & Enkephalins
  • Structurally similar to opiates
  • Inhibitory
  • Can block the transmission of:
    • Pain
    • Excessive pleasure/excitement
  • Stimulates relaxation:
    • Slows heart + respiration rate
    • Slows metabolism
    • Excess  Organ Shut Down
8 schizophrenia
(8) Schizophrenia
  • Cause:
    • Uncoordinated release of dopamine and glutamate
  • Symptoms:
    • Delusional, hallucination
    • Disorganized speech
    • Sudden onset of depression / sluggishness
9 clinical depression
(9) Clinical Depression
  • Cause:
    • Absence / low concentration of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine.
  • Symptoms:
    • Extreme fatigue OR Insomnia
    • Lack of emotion/mood
    • Feelings of worthlessness/hopelessness
    • Loss of interest in anything
10 clinical bipolar disorder
(10) Clinical Bipolar Disorder
  • Cause:
    • Extreme imbalance, and inconsistent production of neurotransmitters…
    • Serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine
  • Symptoms:
    • Manic Periods 
      • Hyper, anxious, volatile emotions
      • Extreme focus / creativity / proactive behavior
    • Depressive Periods 
      • Same symptoms as clinical depression.