#13 United Kingdom
OUTLINE OF 1 SAMUEL • I. Samuel 1-7 • His Birth 1 • His Dedication 2 • His Calling 3 • His Ascendancy 4-7
OUTLINE OF 1 SAMUEL II. Saul 8-15 The Call for a King 8 The Establishment of a King 9-12 The Failures of a King 13-15 • A Soiled Sacrifice 13 • A Frivolous Vow 14 • A Sorry Victory 15
OUTLINE OF 1 SAMUEL III. David's Ascendancy 16-31 • His Anointing 16 • His Acclaim 17-18 • His Humiliation 18-26 • His Vengeance 27-31
1 Samuel The birth, youth and call of Samuel (chs. 1 - 3). In a book dealing for the most part with the reigns of Israel's first two kings, Saul and David, it is notable that God did not choose to include the birth story of either one but to describe the birth of their forerunner and anointer, the prophet Samuel. This shows the importance God attached to Samuel's role in the events that follow. chs. 1 - 3 should be viewed as a more likely component of the book of Judges or as a prefix to the rest of 1,2 Samuel.
1 Samuel Kingship is given its birth and then nurtured by the prophetic word and work of the prophet Samuel. Samuel is the priest and judge who bridges the gap in this turn in the history of God’s people into a kingdom (like the nations round about). They were to be separated unto God but rather chose to be like everyone else.
The Ark Narratives (chs. 4 - 6). This section describes how the ark of God was captured by the Philistines and then, after God wreaked havoc on several Philistine cities, how it was returned to Israel. These narratives reveal the folly of Israel's notion that possession of the ark automatically guaranteed victory over her enemies. They also display the awesome power of the Lord God and his superiority over the Philistine god Dagon. The Philistines were forced to confess openly their helplessness against God's power by their return of the ark to Israel. The entire ark episode performs a vital function in placing Israel's sinful desire for a human king in proper perspective.
Samuel- Priest, Prophet,Judge & Deliverer (ch. 7). When Samuel called Israel to repentance and renewed dedication to the Lord, the Lord intervened mightily in Israel's behalf and gave victory over the Philistines. This narrative reaffirms the authority of Samuel as a divinely ordained leader; at the same time it provides evidence of divine protection and blessing for God's people when they place their confidence in the Lord and live in obedience to their covenant obligations- GOD WAS THEIR KING and any victory they enjoyed came from Him. It can be argued that Samuel was perhaps the best of all the judges.
Israel Asks For A King All the material in chs. 1 - 7 serves as a necessary preface for the narratives of chs. 8 - 12, which describe the rise and establishment of kingship in Israel. God has so arranged the stories in chs. 8 - 12 to accentuate the transition to a king. In the study of these chapters, scholars have often noted what seems curious- On the one hand, Samuel is commanded by the Lord to give the people a king (8:7,9,22; 9:16-17; 10:24; 12:13); on the other hand, their request for a king is considered a sinful rejection of the Lord (8:7; 10:19; 12:12,17,19-20). These seemingly conflicting attitudes towards Israel having a king must be understood in the context of Israel's covenant relationship with the Lord.
Why Did Israel Ask For A King? Moses had anticipated Israel's desire for a human king (Dt 17:14-20), but Israelite kingship was to be compatible with the continued rule of the Lord over his people as their Great King. Instead, when the elders asked Samuel to give them a king (8:5,19-20), they rejected the Lord's kingship over them. Their desire was for a king such as the nations around them had -- to lead them in battle and give them a sense of national security and unity.
Why Did Israel Ask For A King? Their request for a king constituted a denial of their covenant relationship to the Lord, who was their King. Moreover, the Lord not only had promised to be their protector but had also repeatedly demonstrated his power in their behalf, most recently in the ark narratives (chs. 4 - 6), as well as in the great victory won over the Philistines under the leadership of Samuel (ch. 7).
Saul Becomes King In spite of Israel’s rebellion to Him, the Lord instructed Samuel to give the people a king. By divine appointment Saul was brought into contact with Samuel, and Samuel was directed to anoint him privately as king (9:1 -- 10:16). Samuel gathered the people at Mizpah, and after again admonishing them concerning their sin in desiring a king (10:18-19), he presided over the selection of a king.
Saul Becomes King Saul did not immediately assume his royal office, but returned home to work his fields (11:5,7). When the inhabitants of Jabesh Gilead were threatened by Nahash the Ammonite, Saul rose to the challenge, gathered an army and led Israel to victory in battle. His success placed a final seal of divine approval on Saul's selection to be king (cf. 10:24; 11:12-13) and occasioned the inauguration of his reign at Gilgal (11:14 -- 12:25).
God’s Role For Kings In Israel The question was not so much whether Israel should have a king(it was clearly the Lord's will to give them a king), but how they could maintain their covenant with God as a theocratic nation now that they had a human king. The problem was resolved when Samuel called the people to repentance and renewal of their allegiance to the Lord on the very occasion of the inauguration of Saul as king. By establishing kingship in the context of covenant renewal, Samuel placed the monarchy in Israel on a different basis than the kingdoms of men.
God’s Role For Kings In Israel The king in Israel was not to be autonomous in his authority and power; rather, he was to be subject to the law of the Lord and the word of the prophet (10:25; 12:23). This was to be true not only for Saul but also for all the kings who would occupy the throne in Israel in the future. The king was to be an instrument of the Lord's rule over his people, and the people as well as the king were to continue to recognize the Lord as their ultimate Sovereign (12:14-15).
Saul’s Rule As King Saul soon demonstrated that he was unwilling to submit to the requirements of his theocratic office (chs. 13 - 15). When he disobeyed the instructions of the prophet Samuel in preparation for battle against the Philistines (13:13). When he refused to totally destroy the Amalekites as he had been commanded to do by the word of the Lord through Samuel (ch. 15), he ceased to be an instrument of the Lord's rule over his people. These abrogations of the requirements of his theocratic office led to his rejection as king (15:23).
Timeline of 1 Samuel 1105 b.c. - Birth of Samuel (1Sa 1:20) 1080-Birth of Saul 1050-Saul anointed to be king (1Sa 10:1) 1040-Birth of David 1025-David anointed to be Saul's successor (1Sa 16:1-13) 1010-Death of Saul and beginning of David's reign over Judah in Hebron (1Sa 31:4-6; 2Sa 2:1,4,11)
Another Outline Of 1 Samuel Historical Setting for the Beginning of Kingship in Israel (chs. 1-7) • Samuel's Birth, Youth and Call to Be a Prophet (chs. 1-3) • Israel Defeated by the Philistines; the Ark of God Taken and Restored (chs. 4-7)
Another Outline Of 1 Samuel The Beginning of Kingship in Israel under the Guidance of Samuel (8:1;16:13) • The Rise of Saul (chs. 8-12) • The people's sinful request for a king (ch. 8) • Samuel anoints Saul privately (9:1;10:16) • Saul chosen to be king publicly (10:17-27) • Saul's choice as king confirmed (11:1-13) • Saul's reign inaugurated at a covenant renewal ceremony (11:14;12:25) • Saul's Kingship a Failure (13:1;16:13)
David Enters The Picture The Establishment of Kingship in Israel (16:14;31:13) • The Rise of David (16:14;27:12) • David enters Saul's service (16:14-17:58) • David becomes alienated from Saul (chs. 18-19) • Jonathan protects David from Saul (ch. 20) • David continues to elude Saul (21:1;22:5) • Saul kills the priests at Nob (22:6-23)
David Enters The Picture • David rescues the people of Keilah (23:1-6) • Saul continues to pursue David (23:7-29) • David spares Saul's life (ch. 24) • David threatens Nabal's life (ch. 25) • David spares Saul's life again (ch. 26) • David enters Achish's service (ch. 27) • The End of Saul's Reign (chs. 28-31)
1 Samuel- Transition From Judge To King The main people of this book: • Eli- He is the High Priest. His sons Phineas and Hophni are corrupt. Eli is very old at the start of First Samuel.
1 Samuel- Transition From Judge To King The main people of this book: • Samuel - is the last judge, and the first prophet. His mother is Hannah, and his father is Elkanah. His sons are Joel and Abijah and they are corrupt.
1 Samuel- Transition From Judge To King The main people of this book: • Saul – the first King of Israel. His son Jonathan will become David’s best friend, confidant, adviser, and will save David’s life from Saul’s pursuit of David.
1 Samuel- Transition From Judge To King The main people of this book: • David – He will be the successor to Saul. He is from Bethlehem and his father is Jesse. • (Remember: Ruth; from the book of Ruth, is Jesse’s Grandmother, and David’s Great-Grandmother.)
1 Samuel- Transition From Judge To King The main people of this book: • Jonathan- He is Saul’s son; and David’s best friend. He will protect David from Saul.
1 Samuel- Chapter By Chapter Samuel Called: 1. The birth and consecration of Samuel (1) 2. Eli’s terrible sons (2) 3. Samuel is called (3) The Ark of the Covenant is captured by the Philistines: 4. The war with the Philistines (4) 5. Capture of the Ark (4) 6. Eli dies (4) 7. The ark in the hands of the philistines (5, 6) 8. Samuel becomes the judge of Israel (7)
1 Samuel- Chapter By Chapter Saul is chosen as King: 9. Israel wants a King (8) 10. Saul is chosen secretly (9) 11. Samuel anoints Saul (10) 11a. Saul calls hesitant people to war (11) 12. Samuel’s farewell address- Saul leads (12) 13. Saul begins war with Philistines ( 13)
1 Samuel- Chapter By Chapter 14. Saul rules Israel &disobeys God (14,15) • 14a.Evil spirit comes on Saul after rejection & David secretly anointed as king(16) • 14 b. David &Goliath- David begins rise (17) 15. Saul against David- Jonathan & David close friends- David flees from Saul- David’s mighty men-Saul and his sons die in battle at the hands of the Philistines (18-31)
[Kish] had a son whose name was Saul, a choice and handsome man, and there was not a more handsome person than he among the sons of Israel; from his shoulders and up he was taller than any of the people. 1 Samuel 9:2 (NASB)
1 Samuel 8 – 1 Kings 11 • Saul • David • Solomon • Israel Demands a King • When Samuel was old he made his sons judges. 8: 1 • His sons (Joel; Abijah), however, were ungodly judges in Beersheba. 8:2-3 • The elders ask Samuel for a king. 8:4-5 • This grieves Samuel and he goes to God in prayer: 8:7 • God tells him to heed the people’s request. • They have rejected Me. Reference: 1 Samuel 8-15 Israel demands a king (1 Samuel 8)
1 Samuel 8:2-10 2 Now the name of his firstborn was Joel; and the name of his second, Abiah: they were judges in Beer-sheba. 3 And his sons walked not in his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bribes, and perverted judgment. 4 Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto Ramah,
1 Samuel 8:2-10 5 And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations. 6 But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Samuel prayed unto the Lord. 7 And the Lord said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them.
1 Samuel 8:2-10 8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt even unto this day, wherewith they have forsaken me, and served other gods, so do they also unto thee. 9 Now therefore hearken unto their voice: howbeit yet protest solemnly unto them, and shew them the manner of the king that shall reign over them. 10 And Samuel told all the words of the Lord unto the people that asked of him a king.
Warnings About Having A King 1 Sam 8:11-21 11 And he said, This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariots. And he will appoint him captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set them to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and instruments of his chariots.
1 Sam 8:11-21 And he will take your daughters to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be bakers. And he will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your oliveyards, even the best of them, and give them to his servants. And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants. And he will take your menservants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to his work.
He will take the tenth of your sheep: and ye shall be his servants. And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king which ye shall have chosen you; and the Lord will not hear you in that day. Nevertheless the people refused to obey the voice of Samuel; and they said, Nay; but we will have a king over us; That we also may be like all the nations; and that our king may judge us, and go out before us, and fight our battles. And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and he rehearsed them in the ears of the Lord. 1 Sam 8:11-21
Transition From Judges To Kings 1 Sam 11:15-12:5; 12-15; 22-25 1 Sam 11:15-12:5 15 And all the people went to Gilgal; and there they made Saul king before the Lord in Gilgal; and there they sacrificed sacrifices of peace offerings before the Lord; and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly. 12:1- And Samuel said unto all Israel, Behold, I have hearkened unto your voice in all that ye said unto me, and have made a king over you. 2 And now, behold, the king walketh before you: and I am old and grayheaded; and, behold,
my sons are with you: and I have walked before you from my childhood unto this day. 3 Behold, here I am: witness against me before the Lord, and before his anointed: whose ox have I taken? or whose ass have I taken? or whom have I defrauded? whom have I oppressed? or of whose hand have I received any bribe to blind mine eyes therewith? and I will restore it you. 4 And they said, Thou hast not defrauded us, nor oppressed us, neither hast thou taken ought of any man's hand. 5 And he said unto them, The Lord is witness against you, and his anointed is witness this day, that ye have not found ought in my hand. And they answered, He is witness.
1 Sam 12:12-15 12 And when ye saw that Nahash the king of the children of Ammon came against you, ye said unto me, Nay; but a king shall reign over us: when the Lord your God was your king. 13 Now therefore behold the king whom ye have chosen, and whom ye have desired! and, behold, the Lord hath set a king over you. 14 If ye will fear the Lord, and serve him, and obey his voice, and not rebel against the commandment of the Lord, then shall both ye and also the king that reigneth over you continue following the Lord your God: 15 But if ye will not obey the voice of the Lord, but rebel against the commandment of the Lord, then shall the hand of the Lord be against you, as it was against your fathers.
1 Sam 12:22-25 22 For the Lord will not forsake his people for his great name's sake: because it hath pleased the Lord to make you his people. 23 Moreover as for me, God forbid that I should sin against the Lord in ceasing to pray for you: but I will teach you the good and the right way: 24 Only fear the Lord, and serve him in truth with all your heart: for consider how great things he hath done for you. 25 But if ye shall still do wickedly, ye shall be consumed, both ye and your king.
1 Samuel 9:1-2 Saul (the man). • From tribe of Benjamin. • From a wealthy family. • Most handsome in Israel. • From shoulders up he was taller than everyone else. NOTE: Popular choice in the eyes of the People • God gave the people who/what they believed would make for a great king. • Saul fit the mold of “most popular”
1 Samuel 10 Saul Proclaimed as King • Samuel to the people: You have rejected your God… Present yourselves before the Lord 10:19 • Tribes, then families, then Kish’s family brought before the Lord, but Saul was hiding. 10:21-22 • Saul was brought before the people with Samuel’s declaration. 10:23-24 • Samuel then recites God’s ordinances of the kingdom. 10:25
1 Samuel 11 Saul saves Jabesh Gilead • Ammonites came against Jabesh Gilead who wanted to serve them. v. 1 • Jabesh cries for help after Nahash refuses to make a covenant with them. v. 2 • Saul gathers Israel and brings victory for Israel. v. 6-11 • Those who despised Saul were nearly put to death, but Saul saves them. v. 12-13 Israel makes Saul king. v. 15
1 Samuel 13 NOTE: Philistines strong in the land • They strove for land dominance for nearly 300 years by now. • They had garrisons in Israel.
1 Samuel 13 Unlawful sacrifice • Saul, waiting for Samuel in Gilgal decided to “offer burnt offerings.” 13:7b-9 • Samuel rebukes Saul – and asked what have you done? • Saul’s reply: The people were scattering… the Philistines were gathering at Michmash. 13:11 • Samuel - Now your kingdom shall not continue. The Lord has sought for Himself a man after His own heart…1 Sam. 13:13-14
1 Samuel 14 God provides victory to Jonathan • His faith was strong in the Lord. v. 6 (cp. 13:20-22). • He secretly goes to the Philistine’s garrison and sees if God would deliver them to him. vss. 8-15 • After his victory the Phili- stine’s tremble. vss. 12-15 • This allowed all Israel to strengthen and fight (victoriously) against the Philistines. vss. 16-23
1 Samuel 14 Saul and the Philistines Saul’s bad oath • God just delivered Israel vss. 1-23 • The people, however, were weary because Saul made an oath not to eat food until the evening. v. 24-26 • Jonathan didn’t know about this oath and ate. v. 27 • At Jonathan’s word, the people ate the spoil… with blood. vss. 28-32 • Saul stops his oath; find out Jonathan caused this ‘sin’. v. 33-43 • The people argue against Saul and for Jonathan. v. 45
1 Samuel 15 Saul sins by sparing Agag Constant warring with enemies. 14:47-52 Saul commanded to fight against Amalekites • Because of what Amalek did to Israel while in the wilderness. Dt. 25:17-19 • He spares Agag and the best of the ‘clean’ livestock (against God’s command). • Samuel (vss. 10-23): Because you have rejected the word of the Lord, He has also rejected you from being king. v. 23