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Learning. Define Learning. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. Classical Conditioning. In classical conditioning , we learn to associate two stimuli and anticipate events.

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Define learning
Define Learning

  • Learningis a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.


Classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning

  • In classical conditioning, we learn to associate two stimuli and anticipate events.


Learning


Operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning impending crack of thunder, so we start to brace ourselves when lightening flashes nearby.

  • In operant conditioning, we learn to associate a response and its consequence. Typically we repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment.


Learning


Social vicarious observational learning
Social/Vicarious/Observational Learning money, so we continue to get good grades.

  • In social learning (or observational learning), we learn from other’s experiences and examples.


Learning


Learning

Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.


Learning

  • Classical Conditioning – The Office observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.


Classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • Ivan Pavlov - Russian; Medical doctor who spent two decades studying the digestive system. Nobel Prize in 1904. Studied learning for the next three decades, by “accident”.


Classical conditioning2
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • After studying salivary secretion in dogs, he knew that when he put food in a dog’s mouth the animal would invariably salivate. He also began to notice that when he worked with the same dog repeatedly, the dog began salivating to stimuli associated with food – the sight of food, the food dish, the mere presence of the person bringing the food, even the sound of oncoming footsteps in anticipation of the food


Classical conditioning3
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • Pavlov’s Experiment:

  • Through experimentation, Pavlov asked: If a neutral stimulus (something the dog could see or hear) regularly signaled the arrival of food, would the dog associate the two stimuli (the food and the neutral stimuli)? If so, would the dog begin to salivate to the neutral stimulus in anticipation of the food?


Learning

From Pavlov’s research: observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

Zimbardo and Pavlov’s Experiment

Pavlov’s Experiment


Classical conditioning4
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • Unconditioned Stimulus

    • A stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response


Classical conditioning5
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • Unconditioned Response

    • The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus


Classical conditioning6
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • For example:

    • For Pavlov, the UCS was food and the UCR was the dog’s salivation


Classical conditioning7
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • Pavlov’s Experiment (continued):

  • Just before placing food in the dog’s mouth to produce salivation, Pavlov sounded a tone. After several pairings of tone and food, the dog began to salivate to the tone alone, in anticipation of the food.


Classical conditioning8
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • Conditioned Stimulus

    • An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with and unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response


Classical conditioning9
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • Conditioned Response

    • The learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus


Classical conditioning10
Classical Conditioning observing others perform them. If one animal watches another learn to solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the observing animal may perform the trick as well.

  • For example:

    • For Pavlov, the previously neutral stimulus was the tone. During conditioning, the tone was paired with the food (UCS). After conditioning, the tone, when presented alone, produced salivation in the dog. The tone is now considered the CS, and the dog’s salivation to the tone alone is now considered the CR.


Learning

  • 1. While George was having a cavity filled by his dentist, the drill hit a nerve that had not been dulled by anesthetic, a couple of times. Each time he cringed in pain. George now gets anxious each time he sees the dentist.

  • What is the:

  • Unconditioned stimulus: ____________________

  • Unconditioned response: ____________________

  • Conditioned stimulus: ____________________

  • Conditioned response: ____________________


Learning

  • 2. Every time a psychology instructor enters the classroom, she goes straight to the board to write an outline on it. Unfortunately, she has long finger nails and each time she writes the outline, her nails screech on the board, making students cringe. After a few weeks of this, students cringe at the sight of the teacher entering the classroom.


Learning


Learning

  • 4. At a football game, every time the home team scores a touchdown, the person behind you blasts an air horn near your ears causing you to wince. Unfortunately for you, the home team scores frequently. As the end of the game nears, the home team scores a touchdown, and even though the inconsiderate fan behind you has left, you still wince.


Learning


Learning


Learning


Learning


Learning


Learning


Five major conditioning processes
Five Major Conditioning Processes has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • Acquisition

  • Generalization

  • Discrimination

  • Extinction

  • Spontaneous Recovery


Acquisition
Acquisition has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • The initial stage in classical conditioning

  • The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response


Acquisition1
Acquisition has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • Findings:

    • The time between presenting the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus needs to be short. For most species and procedures, about ½ second works best.

    • Conditioning is more likely to occur if the conditioned stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus


Generalization
Generalization has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

    • IE. A dog responding to a bell tone may also respond to a similar sounding door bell. A person bit by a dog may fear all dogs. You may buy a lemon Ford, and never buy a Ford again.


Classical conditioning generalization
Classical Conditioning - Generalization has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • Little Albert Experiment – Fear Conditioning

    • An 11-month infant named Albert feared loud noises, but not white rats. In the experiment, when Albert was presented with a white rat and reached out to touch it, a hammer was struck on a steel beam behind his head. After a number of repetitions of seeing the rat and then hearing the frightening noise, Albert burst into tears at the mere sight of the rat.


Classical conditioning extra
Classical Conditioning - Extra has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • Five days after the testing, Albert showed generalization of his conditioned response by reacting with fear to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat.

  • Little Albert Experiment


Discrimination
Discrimination has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response

    • IE. A child is bitten by a dog, and only fears that dog. Other dogs don’t illicit an automatic fear response.


Extinction
Extinction has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • The diminishing of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus no longer follows a conditioned stimulus

    • If the food no longer follows the bell tone, eventually the dog will no longer associate the bell tone with food and will stop salivating.


Spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous Recovery has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.

  • The conditioned response continues to get weaker after less pairings of the CS and the UCS, and after more and more rest periods


Learning

Acquisition has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

(CS+UCS)

Strength

of CR

Spontaneous

recovery of

CR

Extinction

(CS alone)

Extinction

(CS alone)

Pause


Learning

Operant Conditioning has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.


Operant conditioning1
Operant Conditioning has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer, or diminished if followed by a punisher


Operant conditioning2
Operant Conditioning has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • B.F. Skinner’s Experiments:

    • Based on Edward Thorndike’s LAW OF EFFECT – states that rewarded behavior is likely to recur

    • Experiments conducted with animals in an operant chamber (Skinner Box) – a soundproof box, with a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a reward of food or water


Learning

  • Pigeons and the Skinner Box has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.


Operant conditioning3
Operant Conditioning has yelled at you without warning several times. You now feel tense and fearful any time that you are around him or her.

  • Shaping – while conditioning an animal to perform certain behaviors, reinforcers are successively given only as the subject gets closer to the ultimate behavior goal


Learning


Operant conditioning4
Operant Conditioning it to get from Point A to Point B while following a certain path, then every time the rat makes a turn towards the right path, a reward should be given. If it makes a turn towards the wrong path, NO reward is given.

  • Reinforcement – any event that increases the frequency of a preceding response, or strengthens the behavior that it follows


Learning


Operant conditioning5
Operant Conditioning will increase the likelihood that you will do the dishes again.

  • Positive Reinforcement – strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response.

    • IE. Food for a hungry animal. Attention, approval, money for people.


Learning


Operant conditioning6
Operant Conditioning will increase the likelihood that you will do the dishes again.

  • Negative Reinforcement – strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus


Learning


Operant conditioning7
Operant Conditioning behavior of taking aspirin because it reduces or eliminates the pain. Smoking a cigarette to relieve stress will increase the behavior of smoking because it reduces or eliminates anxiety and pressure.

  • Positive ADDS a desirable stimulus, like getting a hug or watching t.v.

  • Negative REMOVES an aversive stimulus, like fastening a seatbelt to stop the annoying beeping


Operant conditioning8
Operant Conditioning behavior of taking aspirin because it reduces or eliminates the pain. Smoking a cigarette to relieve stress will increase the behavior of smoking because it reduces or eliminates anxiety and pressure.

  • Primary Reinforcers –one that primarily satisfies a biological need

  • Conditioned or Secondary Reinforcers – a stimulus that is learned, and/or is associated with a primary reinforcer


Learning


Operant conditioning9
Operant Conditioning Secondary reinforcers may be money, praise, good grades, a pleasant tone of voice.

  • Immediate and Delayed Reinforcers – How quickly does a reinforcement needed to be given after a desired behavior has been exhibited in order for the behavior to be conditioned? How often does the reinforcement need to be given to condition proper behavior?


Operant conditioning10
Operant Conditioning Secondary reinforcers may be money, praise, good grades, a pleasant tone of voice.

  • Continuous Reinforcement – Reinforcing the desired response immediately, every time it occurs. Learning occurs quickly, but as soon as reinforcement ends, extinction occurs very quickly also.


Learning


Operant conditioning11
Operant Conditioning into it, and it delivers a soda. On Friday, you put your money into it and it doesn’t work. Same thing Saturday. You stop using the machine, though a week later you may try again.

  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement – Reinforcing a response only part of the time. This results in slower acquisition of a response, but much greater resistance to extinction also.


Learning


Operant conditioning12
Operant Conditioning but you’ll keep playing because the reinforcement is worth it, and the habit may last a long time.

  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules:

    • Fixed-Ratio = a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces only after a specified number of responses.

      • IE. Every 10th sale gets a prize.


Operant conditioning13
Operant Conditioning but you’ll keep playing because the reinforcement is worth it, and the habit may last a long time.

  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules:

    • Variable-Ratio Schedule = a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

      • IE. Slot machines, fishing.


Operant conditioning14
Operant Conditioning but you’ll keep playing because the reinforcement is worth it, and the habit may last a long time.

  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules:

    • Fixed-interval schedules = a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

      • IE. At the end of every 30 minutes a new batch of cookies will be baked.


Operant conditioning15
Operant Conditioning but you’ll keep playing because the reinforcement is worth it, and the habit may last a long time.

  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules:

    • Variable-Interval Schedules = a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

      • IE. “You’ve Got Mail”…you don’t know when you will get an email, but you are always checking for it.


Operant conditioning16
Operant Conditioning but you’ll keep playing because the reinforcement is worth it, and the habit may last a long time.

  • Punishment – An event that decreases the behavior that it follows

    • May be done by administering an undesirable consequence, or by withdrawing a desirable consequence


Learning


Operant conditioning17
Operant Conditioning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • Issues/Questions regarding punishments

    • Physical punishments are not forgotten, just suppressed

    • Physical punishments may increase aggressiveness by demonstrating that aggression is a way to cope with problems

    • Punishments may create fear


Operant conditioning18
Operant Conditioning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • If punishment isn’t delivered swiftly, or proportionally with regards to the crime, those punished may be confused, depressed, or helpless

  • Punishments still do not teach the proper behavior – it only suppresses unwanted behaviors


Learning

Observational Learning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.


Learning

  • Mirror Neurons consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.


Observational learning
Observational Learning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • Observational Learning is learning by watching and imitating others


Observational learning1
Observational Learning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • For example, a child sees his big sister burn her fingers on the stove has thereby learned not to touch it.


Observational learning2
Observational Learning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • Modeling is the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior


Observational learning3
Observational Learning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • Pro-Social Models exemplify positive, constructive, helpful behavior. Anti-Social Models exemplify negative and hurtful behavior.


Observational learning4
Observational Learning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • Mirror Neurons in the frontal lobe are partially responsible for allowing humans to imitate simple language and emotions


Observational learning5
Observational Learning consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.

  • Albert Bandura’s Experiment – The Bobo Doll

    • Children exposed to an adult taking out their frustrations on a Bobo doll would imitate their punches and kicks when presented with a Bobo doll when they were frustrated.


Learning

  • Bobo Doll Experiment consequences, while taking away phone or car privileges withdraws desirable consequences.