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Istanbul, June 12, 2006. New Workplace New Education. Kai-ming Cheng University of Hong Kong Forum on Job Creation in Eastern Europe & Central Asia World Bank/Government of Turkey June 12-13, 2006 Istanbul. Education: What’s New?. The Contexts Society: new workplace

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new workplace new education

New WorkplaceNew Education

Kai-ming Cheng

University of Hong Kong

Forum on Job Creation in Eastern Europe & Central Asia

World Bank/Government of Turkey

June 12-13, 2006 Istanbul

education what s new
Education: What’s New?

The Contexts

  • Society: new workplace
  • Education: new developments
  • Learning: new understanding
slide5
Then,

Industrial society ….

assumptions
Assumptions …
  • Large organizations
  • Parallel departments
  • Layers and ranks
  • Detailed division of labour
  • Tight structures
  • Rules and regulations
  • Credential-based recruitment

i.e. bureaucracies

people s assumptions
People’s assumptions …
  • Lifelong career
  • Long-term employment
  • Presumed loyalty
  • Upward mobility
  • Escalating incomes
  • Foreseeable future
  • Predictable retirement
  • ……..
people in workplace industrial
People in Workplace: Industrial
  • Work in specific jobs
  • Engage in relatively isolated tasks
  • Are specialized
  • Are ranked
  • Implement pre-set designs
  • Follow prescribed procedures
  • Abide by rules and regulations
  • Recruited by qualifications
  • ……
industrial society education
Industrial society: Education

Preparing people

  • For specific occupations at specific ranks
  • Providing them with credentials
  • Based on the knowledge and skills
industrial society secondary education
Industrial society: Secondary Education

Therefore,

  • Prepare young people for higher level education
  • Providing them with credentials
  • Based on the knowledge and skills
  • Or employment, if they fail
industrial society secondary education1
Industrial society: Secondary Education
  • Teaching through subjects
  • Helping students through examinations
  • Providing them with credentials
  • Based on the knowledge and skills
slide15
Knowledge & Skills

Preschool

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

“End” of education:

Next stage of education

slide17
Mobile phones

CEO of Samsung:

“We are not producing telephones.

We are producing fashion!”

slide18
G2000

Michael Tien:

“When it works, It’s obsolete!”

“Customers don’t know what they want!”

slide19
Restaurants: Maxim’s

Cantonese Cuisine (9)

Chaozhou Cuisine (3)

Peking Cuisine (5)

Other Chinese Cuisines (5)

Miso, Kiko

m.a.x. concepts: mezz, EXP, café Landmark, thai basil, can.teen, little basil, the basil,

fresh basil, rice paper,

Café Express, Deli and Wine, Curtain Up,

Concerto Bar & Cafe

Starbucks Coffee

Over 320 shops

manufacturing
Manufacturing

Then

Design

Production

Now

outsourcing
Outsourcing

Core Functions

just in time publishing
Just-in-time publishing

Printing

Inventory

Shipping

Inventory

Sales

Sales

Printing

task forces
Task Forces

Client

TASK FORCE

slide39
Post-industrial: Large Organisations

Project Groups

Task Forces

Production Teams

Client Groups

“Accounts”

Deal Team

slide42
Now,

Post-industrial society …

slide45
Hong Kong (around 291,000 registered companies)
  • 99% under 100 (SME)
      • 69% of employees
  • 94% under 20
      • 40% of employees
  • 86% under 10
      • 33% of employees

(June 2005)

slide46
Hong Kong …
  • Free-lancers 220,000 estimated

vis-à-vis 2,200,000 in registered companies

slide47
The United States

Business Enterprises

  • 98% under 100
  • 86% under 20

National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002

slide48
Post-industrial: Workplace

Project Groups/Task Forces

Small Enterprises

Free-lancers

The Civil Service (Traditional)

slide50
Post-industrial: Large Organisations

Project Groups

Task Forces

Production Teams

Client Groups

“Accounts”

Deal Team

slide53
Post-industrial: Workplace

Project Groups/Task Forces

Small Enterprises

Free-lancers

The Civil Service

slide54
Post-industrial: Workplace
  • Organization:
    • small,
    • flat
    • loose
  • Mode of work:
    • Teamwork
    • Collaborative design
    • Ill-defined labour division
    • Blurred specialization
    • Integration of expertise
slide55
Post-industrial: Individuals
  • Many free-lancers
  • Many unemployed
  • Frequent change of jobs
  • Frequent change of careers
  • Ever-changing networks
  • Frequent change of partners
  • ……..
workplace society
Then

Large & Pyramidal

Procedures, rules & regulations

Lifelong careers

Lifelong qualifications

Now

Small & flat

Communications & relations

Multiple careers

On-demand, just-in-time learning

Workplace & Society
slide57
Post-industrial: Expectations
  • Communication
  • Learning on-demand, just-in-time
  • Team-work
  • Personal responsibilities
  • Solving problems
  • Integrating expertise
  • Conceptualising complex matters
  • …….
slide58
Post-industrial: Expectations
  • Readiness to adapt to changes
  • Self-reflection
  • Self-discipline & Self-management
  • Capacity to query, challenge, innovate
  • Flexible human relations
  • Crossing occupational borders
  • Moving across cultures
  • …….
however
However,

If the “end” of education is changed

    • No longer mainly for credentials
    • No longer limited to knowledge and skills
  • Education has broader ends to meet
  • There are lifelong attributes to develop among young people
slide60
Lifelong attributes
  • Optimism about life
  • Passion about nature
  • Commitment to society
  • Commitment to nation
  • Perseverance amidst odds
  • Readiness to expand one’s capacity
  • Broad base experiences
  • Experience in organising
  • ……
slide61
Lifelong attributes
  • Appreciation of arts and music
  • Attitude of helping and caring
  • Seriousness about the details
  • Eagerness to interact with people
  • Ability of a second or third language
  • Some experience of science discovery
  • Some experience of social investigations
  • ……
slide62
Lifelong attributes
  • Love for peace
  • Sense of justice
  • Consciousness of equity
  • Awareness of the deprived
  • Comfort with other cultures
  • Basic understanding of sex
  • Facing moral dilemmas
  • Rudimentary analysis and synthesis
  • ……
slide63
Lifelong attributes
  • Belief in rationality
  • Tolerance of diversity and plurality
  • ….

Many of such are achievable

only during the schooling years!

implications for education
Implications for education
  • Drastic decrease of manual workers
  • Expanded need for higher education
  • Challenge to occupational identity
  • Intensified human interactions and demand for human attributes
  • Demand for more flexible learning modes and paths
slide65
Meanwhile …

New understanding of Learning!

professional accountability
Professional Accountability

Basic questions: What is learning?

  • How people learn?

versus

    • How do we teach?
    • How do we organize teaching?
    • How do we supervise the organisation of teaching?
what is learning
What is learning?

“Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t.”

assumptions about education
Assumptions about Education
  • Learning is about absorption of knowledge
  • Learning takes place in institutions (schools, classrooms, subjects, syllabuses, examinations)
  • Learning takes place in individual brains
  • Learning takes place before using
  • Learning is about the known
  • Education is about knowledge & skills
  • Everybody learns the same
  • ……
assumptions about education1
Assumptions about Education
  • There are smart kids & dumb kids
    • Some can learn, some cannot
    • Only smart kids deserve more education
    • School help keep the gate for learners
  • Education helps classify human beings
    • Education helps ranks human beings
    • Human beings are trained into occupations
    • Learning is more specialised when higher
  • ………..
however1
However, …..

  • Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t know.
what is learning1
What is learning?

  • Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t know.
  • Learning is the learners’ active construction of knowledge.
learning
Learning

New understanding of Learning

  • Learning as Knowledge Construction
  • Learning through Experience
  • Learning through Application
  • Learning from Co-learners
  • Learning as Improvement
learning1
Learning

Corollaries about Learning

  • Learning takes place through meaningful human activities
  • Understanding and application of knowledge are necessarily intertwined
  • Individuals learn differently
slide75
Therefore …
  • Challenges to Paradigms
paradigm of screening
Paradigm of “Screening”

Challenges from reality:

  • Rapid expansion of higher education
  • Unemployment among less-educated
  • Middle-age unemployment
screening
“Screening”

Challenge to the paradigm:

  • Belief in innate ability
    • “There are smart kids and dumb kids”
  • Belief in using knowledge for screening
    • versus lifelong & multi-source learning
  • Belief in using single indicators (e.g. IQ)
    • versus multiple intelligence
paradigm of specialisation
Paradigm of “Specialisation”

Challenges from reality:

  • Division of labour blurred
  • Frequent change of jobs & occupations
  • Job-study mismatch
  • Demand for generic competence
  • Diluted & delayed specialisation in higher education
  • ……
specialisation
“Specialisation”

Challenges to the Paradigm:

  • Belief that education is for classifying people
  • Belief in people’s occupational identity
  • Belief that education should be more specialised at higher levels
  • ……
paradigm of teaching
Paradigm of “Teaching”

Challenge from reality:

  • Students also learn that are not taught
  • Students also learn from alternative sources
  • Technology has made acquisition of knowledge much easier
teaching
“Teaching”

Challenges to the paradigm:

  • Belief that learning is transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t know
  • Belief that learning is about the known and not the unknown
paradigm of study
Paradigm of “Study”

Challenges from reality:

  • The expectation for good characters and personalities
  • The demand for human relational and social competence
  • The renewed importance for values, attitudes, emotions, ethics, principles, …
  • ………..
study
“Study”

Challenges to Paradigms

  • Belief in academic study as proxy for learning
  • Belief in classroom learning as the only reliable learning
  • Belief in examination scores as the only trustworthy measure of human capacity
  • …..
paradigm of schooling
Paradigm of “Schooling”

Challenges from reality:

  • Call for flexible learning anywhere, anytime, anybody
  • Learning is recognised beyond institutions
    • Credit-unit Bank in Korea
    • Lifelong Learning Passport in Taiwan
  • Administrative considerations have taken over learning needs
schooling
“Schooling”

Challenges to Paradigms

  • Belief that learning takes place only in schools
  • Belief that learning takes place only during structured activities
    • Classes, time-tables, subjects, specialised teachers, set menu curriculum,
  • Belief that learning should be under the control of schools and institutions
after all
Industrial

analytic, regulated, structured, clear-cut, uniform, convergent, normative, neat, assertive and reducible to parameters

Post-industrial

holistic, flexible, loose, fuzzy, plural, divergent, liberal, complex, speculative and tolerant of multiplex concepts

After all …
reform trends
Reform trends
  • Expansion of higher education
  • Expanding learning opportunities
  • Blurring subject boundaries
  • Delay of specialisation
  • Compressing “formal” learning
  • Creating diverse learning activities
  • Introducing “moral” elements
reform trends1
Reform trends
  • Reforming examinations
  • Alternative ways of organizing school learning
  • Enriched teachers/facilitators’ team
  • Strengthening of professional capacity and autonomy
  • Mobilization of community resources
example i
Example I
  • Higher education:

expansion of learning opportunities

education system evolution3
Education System: Evolution
  • Europe: + 25%
  • China: +100%
  • Taiwan: oversupply
  • Korea: oversupply
  • ……
example ii
Example II
  • Generic capacity:

reduction and delay of specialization

slide96
Specialization: Evolution

Generic Capacity Building

Common Core

slide97
Specialization: Evolution
  • Engineering: Washington Accord (70%)
  • Business Schools model (50%)
  • Journalism schools model (30%)
  • Europe: Bologna Process (3 + 2 + 2)
  • UK: Foundations Degree (2 + 3 + 3)

Generic Capacity Building

Common Core

example iii
Example III
  • Curriculum Reform:

Broadened learning experiences

slide99
Learning Experiences/ KLAs

Beyond

Classrooms

Beyond

Campus

Cyber-Space

Classrooms

slide100
Blurring subject boundaries

Beyond

Classrooms

Beyond

Campus

Cyber-Space

  • Key-Learning Areas (Hong Kong)
  • Co-curriculum/After School Education
  • Reduction of formal curriculum
    • Japan 30%
    • Singapore 33%
  • Rise of International Baccalaureate

Classrooms

example iv
Example IV
  • Increase of non-study learning

Co-curricula, partnership with workplace

slide103
International Exchange

Visits to the Rural, Deprived

Community Services

Design, Music, Drama, Sports

Internship, Placement, Mentorship

Executives of Organisations

Student Activities

Study

Classes

slide104
Learning across Cultures

Learning to Care

Learning to Serve

Creativity Learning

Workplace Learning

Leadership Learning

Alternative Learning

Academic

Knowledge

Classes

slide105
Music, Sports, Art, Drama, Dance

Mentorship

Learning cross cultures

Student Residence, Student Unions, Associations & Clubs, Young Leaders

Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Church

Learning to care

Learning to serve

Workplace Learning

Creativity Learning

Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork

Leadership Learning

Learning to live together

Classrooms, Libraries, Laboratories

Academic Learning

Classes

Exchange, Youth Conferences

slide106
Music, Sports, Art, Drama, Dance
  • Tacit Knowledge
  • Social Competence
  • Values Education
  • Civic Education
  • Character Education
  • Personality Education
  • Moral Education

Mentorship

Learning cross cultures

Student Residence, Student Unions, Associations & Clubs, Young Leaders

Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Church

Learning to care

Learning to serve

Workplace Learning

Creativity Learning

Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork

Leadership Learning

Learning to live together

Classrooms, Libraries, Laboratories

Academic Learning

Classes

Exchange, Youth Conferences

after all1
After all …

We are facing

Diversity, Uncertainty, Change, …

Plus

Learning anywhere, anytime

oecd key competencies
OECD: Key Competencies
  • Interacting in socially heterogeneous groups
  • Acting autonomously
  • Using tools purposively and interactively

OECD: The Definition and Selection of Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual FoundationsProject (DeSeCo)

key competencies
Key competencies

Interacting in socially heterogeneous groups

  • The ability to relate well to others
  • The ability to cooperate
  • The ability to manage and resolve conflicts
key competencies1
Key competencies

Acting autonomously

  • The ability to act within the “big picture”
  • The ability to form and conduct life plans and personal projects
  • The ability to defend and assert one’s rights, interests, limits, and needs
key competencies2
Key competencies

Using tools purposively and interactively

  • The ability to use language, symbols, and text interactively
  • The ability to use knowledge and information interactively
  • The ability to use technology interactively
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