BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH PHENOLICS, CHLORINATED PHENOLS, PCP AND CREOSOTES. BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH PHENOLICS, CHLORINATED PHENOLS, PCP AND CREOSOTES Institute of Technology, Sligo
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Institute of Technology, Sligo
Department of Environmental Science and Technology
Dr. Michael Broaders
Uses naturally occurring microorganisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances.
In Situ Bioremediation of Soil
Creosote is a product mainly of coal tar but also of wood tar , and is characterized as a brown –black oily liquid having a significant fraction of mixed phenolics (10%)and heterocyclics (5%), along with the PAHs (85%)(Mueller et al.,1989) It is a distillate produced by high temperature carbonization of the tars.
Seepage of creosote from intertidal sediments at Eagle Harbor. (Photo courtesy of EPA)
Wood piling treated with creosote
The factors affecting cresoste’s fate
It’s physical and chemical properties.
The KOW of creosote’s components
Phenols are a large group of naturally occuring ,chemically diverse compounds .
Phenol is a colorless or white solid when it is pure; however, it is usually sold and used as a liquid.
Phenolics are characterised by the presence of an aromatic ring and one or two hydroxyl groups
There are 19 different chlorophenols depending upon the number and arrangement of chlorine atoms on the parent phenol ring.
The effects of chlorophenols on organisms are reported under the following headings: cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and enzymatic/metabolic effects.
generally, molecules with more chlorines are more toxic,
due mainly to higher fat solubility as indicated by
higher octanol/water coefficients ( K o/w )
“Bioremediation is defined as the process where organic wastes are degraded biologically under controlled conditions to less toxic contaminants or to levels that do not constitute a threat to the environment”.
Figure 1.5 White rot Fungus: Bjerkandera adusta
The main factors influencing in situ contaminant bioremediation include:
Ø moisture content
Ø redox potential
These factors can be manipulated in order to optimize the correct conditions.
1.The inexistence of environmental laws and regulations to the formation of a waste treatment market.
2.The view, that pollution control costs industry money & makes industry less competitive in world markets.
3.Research efforts are generally minimal in many countries & the diffusion of research results into commercial applications is negligible (compared to the other sector affected by technology)
4.Get the knowledge in several areas of science .(Microbial physiology, biochemistry ,genetics, ecology …….)
1.The speed of bioremediation.
2. Bioremediation must be specifically tailored to each polluted site.It require individualized attention.
3.There are no official scientific measures for evaluating the success or failure of bioremediation.
1.The majority of the firms are small & lack sufficient capital to finance sophisticated research & product development programs.
2.The information is kept by trade secrets & intellectual protection.
3.Experienced personnel are in short supply.
4.University programs are now being establishing for bioremediation specialists.
1.Cleanup standards. How clean is clean? The achievable endpoint for biodegradation may be limited for specific pollutants.
2.Standards are still under development.
3.Law established after pollution problem
Normative of reference: Directive 75/442/CEE, Directive 91/156/CEE, Regulation 259/93 of the Counsel.
This Law is applicable to all kinds of residues, with exception of the emissions to the atmosphere, the radioactive residues and they poured to the water. It contemplates the residues in the prior phase to its generation, regulating the activities of every person that put in the generators products market of residues. With the purpose to achieve a strict application of the principle of "who contaminates pays", the Law associates the liability at the product, at the moment of its put in the market, the costs of the adequate management of the residues that generates said well and its accessories, such as the bottled or packing.
It promotes the contribution among the Administration and the responsible for it put in the market of products that with its use are transformed into residues, by means of the creation of an adequate legal framework, with the subscription in agreement voluntary and of covenants of contribution.
For the attainment of the objectives of reduction, reutilization, recycled and thermal energy recover, as well as to promote the technologies less contaminant in the elimination of residues, the Law foresees that the Public Administrations, in the environment of their respective competences, they can establish economic instruments of character and measured of incentive scheme.
Likewise, norms upon the statement of soils are dictated contaminated and be to regulated the administrative responsibility derived from the of it non-fulfillment established in this Law, consider the infractiones as the sanctions that proceeds to impose like consequence of it.