Text Structures by Carol Nichols, Metropolitan State College of Denver, firstname.lastname@example.org. Structure of Narrative and Expository Texts. Text Structures.
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Structure of Narrative and Expository Texts
Much of the narrative text has a similar structure. Generally the following five elements can be found in narrative text:
The use of a graphic organizer before, during, and/or after the reading of narrative text can help students learn the structure of the text. A graphic organizer is a visual representation of the structure of the text.
A graphic organizer can be designed to help students recognize the structure of narrative text. Professional materials usually refer to this as developing a “sense of story” or “story grammar.”
On the next slide is a sample graphic organizer for narrative.
If story grammar graphic organizers are used frequently, the teacher sometimes customizes the graphic organizer for the specific piece of narrative the students will read. Customizing the organizer is not essential, but it does offer some variety for the students.
On the following slides are samples of some customized graphic organizers to help students learn the structure of narrative.
Expository (nonfiction) text can be made up of at least six different structures. These structures are: cause and effect; compare and contrast, time sequence, problem/solution, definition/description, and enumeration or steps to accomplish something.
The organizer helps student recognize how a series of events interact with one event leading to the next, etc. until the cycle starts over again. Some life cycle descriptions in science would be good for this type of organizer.
Children’s literature also has many examples of this type of structure. One example is If You Give a Mouse a Cookie.
The prior organizer only represents one action taken to solve the problem.
If the text describes several attempts to take action to solve the problem, the graphic organizer would then be designed to give the student space to note all of the action taken to solve the problem
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/Ir1grorg.htm has a graphic organizer
called a “Spider Web” which is an effective design to show the central idea, its attributes, and its functions.