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Gram Positive Bacteria. Grouped based on C + G ratio (nitrogen bases cytosine and guanine) Divided into 2 Phyla Firmicutes (low C + G ) Actinobacteria (High C + G). Firmicutes. Low G + C ratio Includes endospore forming and wall-less bacteria . Phylum: Firmicute 3 Classes: Clostridia

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gram positive bacteria
Gram Positive Bacteria
  • Grouped based on C + G ratio (nitrogen bases cytosine and guanine)
  • Divided into 2 Phyla
    • Firmicutes (low C + G )
    • Actinobacteria (High C + G)
firmicutes
Firmicutes
  • Low G + C ratio
  • Includes endospore forming and wall-less bacteria
slide3
Phylum: Firmicute
  • 3 Classes:
    • Clostridia
    • Bacilli
    • Mollicutes (mycoplasmas)
clostridia
Clostridiales

Clostridium

Obligate anaerobes

Endospores

C. tenani – tetanus

C. botulinum - botulism

Clostridia
slide5
Epulopiscium
    • Very large bacteria
    • Huge genome
    • Endosymbiont in surgeonfish
    • Reproduces by releasing cells through slit
slide6

Single Thiomargarita cell

  • Thiomargarita
    • gamma Proteobacteria
    • Anaerobic chemolithotroph that oxidizes sulfur and reduces nitrates
    • Even larger than Epulopiscium
    • Large vacuole to increase surface area to volume ratio

Fruit Fly

bacilli
Bacilli
  • Bacillales
    • Includes both rods and cocci
    • Includes medically/ commercially important genera
  • Bacillus
    • Endospore-producing rods
    • Aerobe or facultative anaerobe
    • B. anthracis- anthrax
    • B.thuringiensis – insecticide
    • B. cereus - food borne illness
slide8
Staphylococcus - grapelike clusters of cocci
    • facultative anaerobes
    • Yellow pigmented colonies
    • common inhabitant of skin and the nasal cavity
    • grows in foods with high osmotic pressure
    • S. epidermidis and S. aureus
slide9
S. aureus highly virulent
  • surgical wound infections
  • toxic shock syndrome toxin
  • enterotoxin - induces vomiting
  • exfolatin toxin – scalded skin syndrome
  • Folliculitis
  • Impetigo
  • MRSA and VRSA
slide10
Lactobacillales
    • Commercially important
    • Aerotolerant or facultative anaerobes
  • Lactobacillus
    • Aerotolerant; Lactic acid fermenting rod
    • common in vagina, intestinal tract, and oral cavity
    • used in production of pickles, buttermilk, and yogurt
slide11
Streptococcus
    • chains of cocci
    • Aerotolerant; Lactic acid fermenter
    • Pathogenic strains produce multiple extra-cellular enzymes and toxins
    • Responsible for more illnesses and a greater variety of diseases than any other group of bacteria
slide12
Beta-hemolytic streptococci
    • S.pyogenes
      • Impetigo, strep throat, scarlet fever, necrotizing fascitis
  • Alpha-hemolytic streptococci
    • S. pneumoniae
      • Pneumonia, ear infections, sinusitis, meningitis
    • S. mutans
      • Dental carries
slide13
Listeria
    • Facultative anaerobe
    • L. monocytogenes
    • Contaminates dairy products
    • Psychrotroph
    • Survives inside phagocytes
    • May be responsible for stillbirths and birth defects
mollicutes mycoplasmas
Mollicutes (mycoplasmas)
  • Mycoplasmatales
    • Wall-less, highly pleomorphic
    • Very small (0.1 - 0.24 µm)
    • May produce filaments
    • Degenerative evolution
slide15
Mycoplasma
    • M. pneumoniae
    • walking pneumonia
  • Spiroplasma
    • Corkscrew morphology
    • plant pathogen and parasite of plant feeding insects
actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
  • High G + C
slide17
Mycobacterium
    • acid fast; aerobic rods; filamentous growth
    • non-endospore former; mycolic acid
    • M. tuberculosis – tuberculosis
    • M. leprae - leprosy
  • Corynebacterium
    • Club shaped, metachromatic granules
    • C. diphtheriae –diphtheria
slide18
Propionibacterium
  • propionic acid fermenter
    • Important in swiss cheese production
    • P. acnes commonly found on human skin; primary cause of bacterial acne
  • Gardnerella
  • gram variable; highly plemorphic
    • G. vaginalis – bacterial vaginitis
slide19
Actinomycetes
    • Common soil inhabitants
    • Branching filaments
    • Asexual spores
    • Frankia, Streptomyces, Actinomyces
slide20
Streptomyces
    • most antibiotics are produced by Streptomyces species
    • about 500 known species
    • asexual spores (conidospores)
    • Produce gaseous geosmin
slide21
Actinomyces– facultative anaerobes
    • mouth and throat of animals
    • A. israelii - actinomycosis (tissue-destroying disease affecting the head, neck, or lungs)
  • Frankia
    • nitrogen fixing bacteria
    • Forms root nodules with alder trees
domain archaea
Domain Archaea
  • Highly diverse morphology and physiology
  • Frequently inhabit extreme environments
  • Three primary groups are halophiles, thermophiles and methanogens
slide23
Currently classified into 3 Phyla
    • Crenarchaeota
    • Euryarchaeota
    • Korarchaeota
euryarchaeota
Euryarchaeota
  • Gram+ to gram variable halophiles, methanogens and a few thermophiles
    • Halobacteriales
      • Obligate halophiles
        • Bacteriorhodopsin based light capturing system
slide25
Methanobacteriales
    • Methanogens
      • Convert CO2, H2 and organic acids into methane
    • Largest known group of archaea
    • Gram +;Obligate anaerobes
slide26
Crenarchaeota
  • Gram-; most thermophiles
  • Sulfolobales
    • acidophilic thermophilic sulfur metabolizers
slide27
Desulfurococcales
    • Hyperthermophiles
slide28
Korarchaeota
    • No members have ever been observed
    • Known only from environmental rRNA samples