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BUSINESS ETHICS| IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY. Misbahuddin Azzuhri. Ethical Perspectives in International Business. when businesspeople travel abroad, they sometimes perceived different modes of operation . research shows that American companies feel they are different from may foreign companies .

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ethical perspectives in international business
Ethical Perspectives in International Business
  • when businesspeople travel abroad, they sometimes perceived different modes of operation.
  • research shows that American companies feel they are different from may foreign companies.
  • “we” versus “them” is referred to as self-reference criterion-unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values, experiences, & knowledge.
culture as a factor in international business
Culture as a Factor in International Business
  • culture is everything in our surroundings made by people-both tangible and intangible concepts & values
    • each nation has a distinctive culture & beliefs about acceptable or unethical activities
  • citizens of different cultures vary based on their religious beliefs as well as perceptions of time
  • the key question: whose values & ethical standards take precedence
cultural relativism
Cultural Relativism...
  • the concept that morality varies from one culture to the next since business practices are defined as right or wrong by the particular culture
    • ethical relativism-one culture definesethical behavior for the whole globe, no exceptions
    • business relativist-there may be no ethical standards except for the one in the transaction culture
multinational corporations
Multinational Corporations...
  • operate on a global scale without significant ties to any one nation or region
    • perceived to be unfair for MNCs to transfer jobs abroad where wage rates are lower
    • have been accused of increasing the gap between the rich & poor nations
    • have been accused of exploiting natural & human resources
    • have been accused of engaging in unfair competition
global ethical issues
Global Ethical Issues
  • sexual & racial discrimination
  • human rights
  • price discrimination
  • bribery
  • harmful products
  • pollution
  • telecommunications
sexual racial discrimination
Sexual & Racial Discrimination
  • discrimination is often justified on the basis of cultural norms & values.
  • discrimination remains one of the more prevalent concerns in international business.
  • Indonesian laws prohibit businesses activities from discriminating on the basis of race, ethnicity, region, sex, religion & ability.
human rights
Human Rights
  • opportunistic use of child labor, payment of low wages, abuses in foreign factories are a few of the concerns.
  • relationships with subcontractors have proved problematic for some firms.
  • MNCs should view the law as a floor of acceptable behavior & strive for greater improvements in workers’ quality of life.
advancing human rights
Advancing Human Rights...
  • engage in an open dialog with workers & management.
  • be aware of human rights issues & concerns in each country in which they engage in business.
  • adopt the prevailing legal standard, but seek to embrace a ‘best practices’ approach and standard.
price discrimination
Price Discrimination
  • occurs when a firm charges different prices to different groups of consumers
    • allowable if justified based on costs
  • price gouging-a price increase exceeding the costs of additional expenses (taxes, etc.)
  • dumping-charging high prices for products sold in the home market and low prices that do not cover costs in foreign markets (considered illegal under many international laws)
bribery the foreign corrupt practices act
Bribery & the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act...
  • bribes & facilitating payments are acceptable in many cultures
  • the Indonesian anti-Corruption Act prohibits MNCsand national corporations from offering or providing payments to officials of foreign governments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business abroad
    • may Indonesian businesses at a disadvantage
    • has been supported through global treaties
harmful products
Harmful Products
  • product banned in many industrial nations, considered harmful, are sold in other countries where they are still legal.
  • dumping of hazardous waste materials in less developed countries is a related issue.
  • some products that are not harmful in some countries may be so in others because of issues related to: literacy, unsanitary conditions, & cultural values.
  • many countries are working together to create alliances & standards for environmental responsibility to minimize the negative effects of pollution.
  • some countries are taking legal action against polluting firms in an effort to defend air & water quality.
  • reasonable global emission standards must be established.
  • satellites, e-mail & the Internet bring a ease of information access with resulting ethical issues
  • a few of the ethical issues include:
    • counterfeiting
    • knockoffs
    • money laundering