NigeriaRoss GartleyJanuary 27, 2000 • Pop : 121 million • GDP/capita: $285 • Poverty : 66% • Debt/GDP : 70% • “Democracy” • oil, cocoa
Political Development: Nigeria • Historical Overview • Democracy? • Political Development • Challenges • Economic Development • Dual Economy • Conclusion
Intro • Classical authoritarian regime in transition • Political development toward a democratic state requires greater political integration and economic independence • Role of MNC and DFI have limited the development of Nigeria by exacerbating social cleavages.
Historical Overview • 1960 : Nigeria unified as a federal state • 3 primary states: West, North and East : source of conflict; divided according to cultural concentration • Various succession movements • Founding of Republic of Biafra • lack of political integration: Ethnic conflict • Rise of authoritarian regime • Transition to civilian rule?
Democracy? • Foundations of democracy in 1960:free election, multiparty system • 3 groups of rights as a precondition to democracy existed at time • participation; political integration • Government infrastructure • Accountability
Political Development • Federalism • 1st and 2nd Republic • Politics directed by economic policy; states are in competition • Widespread corruption; spurred MNC & DFI and bilateral aid (tied). • Failure of republics : rise of authoritarian regime
Challenges • Class alignment : Upper class gained status due to their intermediary role b/w MNC and their middle/lower class supporters. • Underdevelopment is the bi-product of development • Domestic and international core-periphery relationship • Vulnerable to international economic fluctuations • Foreign owned debt
Dependency Approach : Dual Economy • Portion of Nigerian economy is modern : based heavily on exports (oil) and manufacturing. Technologically advanced • The traditional sector is losing K,L and land, further exacerbating problem. • Modern sector is exploiting traditional sector thereby further increasing its power. • Elites invest interest and $ in modern sector vs. traditional. Undermine heritage; creating resentment 1983
Economic Development • Enormous economic potential : local participation needed. • Active state participation : capital accumulation • Yet annual growth rate lies below 3rd world expectations (4%) • Per Capita income ‘97<‘60 in real terms • 66% of population lives below poverty line • MNC account for 85% of economic activity
Conclusion • Foreign industrial development in Nigeria has substantially increased its dependence : Single industry economy • Political development can only occur with greater role of state • But greater role of state is only possible with political integration of divergent cultures found within Nigeria • Olusegun Obasanjo : can he succeed where all others have failed?