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Industrial Revolution. What you need to know. Eli Whitney – 2 major inventions How Industrial Revolution changed life NE shift to manufacturing How cotton gin changed south American Plan Canals & roads 2 nd Bank of the US Era of Good Feeling. The Industrial Revolution.

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what you need to know
What you need to know
  • Eli Whitney – 2 major inventions
  • How Industrial Revolution changed life
  • NE shift to manufacturing
  • How cotton gin changed south
  • American Plan
  • Canals & roads
  • 2nd Bank of the US
  • Era of Good Feeling
the industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution
  • Period of change in history when:
    • Machines replaced hand tools for manufacturing
    • Factories grew in size & efficiency
    • Society began move from rural to urban
interchangeable parts
Interchangeable Parts
  • Invented by Eli Whitney
  • Allow for consistency
    • Goods manufactured exactly alike
  • Factories could manufacture more
    • Quicker & easier to build
interchangeable parts1
Interchangeable Parts
  • Replace part, not entire product
  • People accumulate wealth
    • Don’t have to throw things away; can fix them easily
the factory system
The Factory System
  • Power-driven machines
    • Early – water & steam power
    • Later – electricity
  • Division of labor
    • People do simple tasks quickly
    • Assembly line
the factory system1
The Factory System
  • Started in British textile industry in Manchester
  • Factories grow, people move from farms to cities to find jobs
america industrializes
America industrializes
  • Embargo of 1807 / War of 1812
    • Both stopped international trade
    • US couldn’t buy foreign goods
    • Changed from exporting raw materials to manufacturing
northeastern economy
Northeastern Economy
  • Mostly shipping & importing
  • Badly hit by embargo & war
  • 1st factories in US were in NE
    • British-style textile mills
northeastern economy1
Northeastern Economy
  • Agriculture was not as important to NE economy
  • Couldn’t grow cash crops
    • Mostly subsistence farmers
  • No demand for slaves
    • By 1804 most NE states abolished
northeastern economy2
Northeastern Economy
  • Many moved to NE cities for work
  • Invested big $ in factories
    • Investing $ in agriculture was a waste of time
northwestern economy
Northwestern Economy
  • Land better for farming
  • Grew a couple of cash crops or livestock plus food for family
    • Corn, wheat, cattle
northwestern economy1
Northwestern Economy
  • Sold crops in city markets to non-farmers
  • No need for slaves
    • Didn’t require much labor
    • No huge profits
southern economy
Southern Economy
  • Farmers in 1700s grew mostly long-staple cotton
    • Expensive & difficult to grow
      • Only grows along warm coastline
    • Easy to “clean” – remove seed
    • Expensive selling price – luxury item
southern economy1
Southern Economy
  • Few grew short-staple cotton
    • Cheap & easy to grow
      • Grows anywhere it’s warm
    • Hard to clean – fibers are tighter
      • Too expensive to process by hand
    • Not as fancy – cheaper price
the cotton gin
The Cotton Gin
  • Eli Whitney invented – 1793
    • Easier to cultivate short-staple
    • Feasible to grow all over south
    • Cheaper product – must grow lots to make money
southern economy2
Southern Economy
  • Poor farmers could buy cheap land in new western states
  • Set up new plantations for cheap short-staple cotton
  • More and more slaves needed
southern economy3
Southern Economy
  • King Cotton
    • S becomes dependent on cotton
    • Rely on exporting to NE & Britain
    • No need to industrialize
american system
American System
  • 3-pt plan for US to grow & unify
    • Transportation improvements
      • Roads, canals, harbors
    • Protective tariff
      • Help US businesses compete
    • Bring back Bank of the US
      • Stabilize & nationalize economy
henry clay
Henry Clay
  • Speaker of the House from KY
  • Wanted help for new states to develop
american system1
American System
  • Better transportation helps goods get from S/W to NE
  • Makes everyone better off
  • Economic freedom from Europe
transportation improvements
Transportation improvements
  • Roads
    • Built by states all over
    • Paid for mostly by tolls
    • National Road – from MD to IL
transportation improvements1
Transportation improvements
  • Canals
    • Erie Canal connected Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean
    • Took 8 years to build
    • Made New York City most important port in US
tariff of 1816
Tariff of 1816
  • After War ended Britain flooded US market with cheap goods
    • US companies couldn’t compete
  • RaisedBritish prices – equalized to US prices
tariff of 18161
Tariff of 1816
  • Money made from tariff paid for internal improvements
  • S & W weren’t happy
    • Weren’t manufacturing anyway
    • Raisedprices for US exports (cotton)
2nd bank of the us
2nd Bank of the US
  • Supported by people nationwide
  • Common currency – business easier across regions
era of good feeling
“Era of Good Feeling”
  • James Monroe elected President in 1816
  • Most Americans happy with gov
what you need to know1
What you need to know
  • Eli Whitney – 2 major inventions
  • How Industrial Revolution changed life
  • NE shift to manufacturing
  • How cotton gin changed south
  • American Plan
  • Canals & roads
  • 2nd Bank of the US
  • Era of Good Feeling
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