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Introductory Thermodynamics Virtual Molecular Dynamics Institute Boston University 2002 Linda Culp Thorndale HS email@example.com Kathi Hopkins Robinson HS firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction • Students will discover energy relationships & concepts through observation, experimentation, and application using Simulab and traditional wet labs. • Abstract molecular concepts are quantitatively modeled using graphics, charts, and data lists with variables that can be manipulated.
Our Goal • Students will gain an understanding of energy relationships through multiple learning modes.
Energy Potential energy Kinetic energy System dynamics Total energy Temperature Law of conservation of energy Energy transfer & pathways Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Heat Volume Work Heat capacity Major Concepts
State Curriculum Standards • Adheres to TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge & Skills) objective for chemistry, physics, & biology. http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter112/ch112c.html • Assessed by TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge & Skills) • Follows guidelines of Advanced Placement chemistry, physics, biology
Intended Audience • Entry level 1st year chemistry or physics students – 10th grade. • Extensions appropriate for Advanced Placement or Honors Chemistry and Biology
Placement in Curriculum • Basic concepts of energy required in all sciences • Replace traditional unit • Both wet lab and Simulab. • Prior experience: • Math and reading skills of a typical 9th & 10th grade student. • SMD and Excel or Graphical Analysis
Adjustments/Adaptations • Unit proceeds from basic to advanced concepts. • Advanced levels proceed to enthalpy and Hess’s Law. • Without computers, teachers may utilize wet labs, overhead projectors, graph paper, and graphing calculators.
Time • 7 – 50 minute class periods. • Minimal preparation for computer activities • Preparation of demonstrations & wet labs – varies with situation - 10 to 15 minutes.
Electronic Equipment-optional • PC or Mac • CBL with probes • Graphing calculators • Computer lab to accommodate groups of 2-3 students • Data projector to show Simulab demonstrations • VMDL software & Simulab files • Overhead projector • Graphing program: ex: Excel or Graphical analysis
Wet Labs: Baggie Reaction Production of Gas in a syringe Specific Heat of Metals Balloon Experiment Calcium metal – Ammonium thiocyanate labs SimuLabs: VMDL software & Simulab files SMD States of Matter “Experiment 1A” SMD player “temperature.smd” SMD player “reaction” SMD “Simulab Icebreaker” Teaching Resources
References • Chemistry by Steven Zumdahl (4th edition) Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston, Mass. 1997 • Flinn Scientific http://www.flinnsci.com/(source for chemicals) • Modern Chemistry Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1993 • Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. Chemical Demonstrations (Vol 3) The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI 1989 • TAKS http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter112/ch112c.html • TEKShttp://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter112/ch112c.html • Virtual Dynamics Laboratory Manuals & Software, Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, 2002.
Objectives: • Students will be able to: • Day 1: • Observe changes in energy • Identify different forms of energy • Interpret energy relationships with SMD software • Day 2: • Discover relationships between potential & kinetic energy • Collect data through computer simulations to determine the effects of temperature upon energy • Graphically record & analyze collected data to predict trends
Objectives: • Day 3 • Analyze computer models in open systems • Prepare & observe effects of gas production • Compare the SMD models of expanding gases to experimentally obtained data. • Formulate an hypothesis relating work & energy. • Day 4 • Calculate specific heat values • Day 5 • Determine specific heat of known metals • Compare experimentally obtained specific heats with actual values. • Identify unknown metal using experimentally obtained data.
Objectives: • Day 6 • Deduce the effects of high heat capacity of water on surrounding materials • Day 7 • Compare and contrast exothermic and endothermic reactions • Design and defend a concept map of terms within the unit.
Unit Timeline & Instructional Outline • Day One: Mini Lab Baggie Reaction Discussion Concepts & observations SMD-Player Intro to simple E, KE, & PE • Day Two: Discussion Reflect on prior concepts Instructions “Experiment 1a Simulab” Classwork Data table & class average graph Debrief Simulab results & connections
Unit Timeline • Day Three: Discussion Connections with Law of Conservation of energy. SMD Player Expanding gases, work & conservation of Energy Min-Lab Production of gas in syringe Debrief Connections between mini lab & Simulab • Day Four: Modeling Problem-solving Assignment Heat capacity problems Pre-Lab Specific heat of metals
Unit Timeline • Day 5: Mini Activity Expanding gases Discussion Connections to prior concepts Lab Specific heat of metals Debrief Reflect & make connection • Day 6: Mini Activity Balloon Experiment SMD Activity Virtual Modeling Debrief Reflect & make connections
Unit Timeline • Day 7 Mini Lab Calcium metal/ammonium thiocyanate Debrief Reflect & Make connections Activity Concept Map Presentations Student presentations
Assessments • Learning journals or lab book record • Student participation rubric • Problem-solving assignment showing accurate work • Lab report rubric • Concept map & presentation
Extensions • Biology – Observe the changes in the potential energy of a molecule as it moves through a membrane. See pot_energy-membrane.umv • Links: • http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/HOMEEXPTS/FIREBALLOON.html • www.science.demon.co.uk/handbook/18.htm • http://bradley.bradley.edu/~campbell/demo.html