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Fundamentals of Psychological Testing PSYC 4500: Introduction to Clinical Psychology Brett Deacon, Ph.D. October 8, 2 PowerPoint Presentation
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Fundamentals of Psychological Testing PSYC 4500: Introduction to Clinical Psychology Brett Deacon, Ph.D. October 8, 2
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  1. Fundamentals of Psychological TestingPSYC 4500: Introduction to Clinical PsychologyBrett Deacon, Ph.D.October 8, 2013

  2. Announcements • Exam #2 is next Thursday, October 17th • Next response paper due October 24th • Time constraints and Chapter 7 (Intellectual Assessment)

  3. In the News • SSCP email exchange • OCD screenings prompted by IOCDF

  4. Our Last Class… • Current plan: prescription privileges for psychologists • Alternative: Skype meeting with Laura Delano • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yj5wfS0WXrQ • http://www.madinamerica.com/author/ldelano/

  5. Basics of Assessment • Basic characteristics of psychological tests and how to evaluate them • Detailed in Hunsley, Lee, & Wood (2003) chapter

  6. Psychological Testing • What is a psychological test? • “The measurement of a sample of behavior obtained under standardized conditions and that has established rules for scoring or interpreting this sample.” (Anastasi, 1988)

  7. When is a Test Really a Test? • (1) A sample of behavior is collected in order to generate statements about a person • (2) A claim is made that these statements are valid because of how they were collected (i.e., in a standardized manner, with established rules for scoring, etc.), as opposed to the assessor’s expertise alone

  8. When is a Test Really a Test? • Dr. A gives the Rorschach to a patient and administers and interprets the test subjectively using his clinical judgment. • Dr. B gives the Rorschach to a patient and administers, scores, and interprets the test according to the published guidelines for the Exner system.

  9. Test Construction and Psychometric Principles • Standardization • Reliability • Validity • Norms

  10. Test Construction and Psychometric Principles • Standardization – proving detailed instructions about administration, scoring, etc. • Necessary to compare scores across assessors and settings • In the absence of standardization, a test has no validity

  11. Test Construction and Psychometric Principles • Reliability – three types of consistency: • (1) Internal consistency • (2) Interrater reliability • (3) Test-retest reliability • Necessary but not sufficient for validity

  12. Test Construction and Psychometric Principles • Validity – does the test measure what it purports to measure? • (1) Content validity • (2) Concurrent and predictive validity • (3) Discriminant validity • (4) Incremental validity

  13. Test Construction and Psychometric Principles • Validity (continued) • What if there are multiple scores and scales? • What if it is used with different populations? • What if there are multiple uses of a test?

  14. Test Construction and Psychometric Principles • A test is standardized, reliable, and valid • But how do we know what a high or low score means? • Norms – population-based scores for purposes of comparison • Difficult, labor-intensive process to do properly

  15. Test Construction and Psychometric Principles • To evaluate the value of a psychological test, we can examine that test’s standardization, reliability, validity, and norms

  16. The Brett Deacon Test of Personality, Intelligence, and Psychopathology

  17. What Might This Be?

  18. Scoring Criteria for Stimulus #1 • 1. Creativity (0-10; 0 = good, 10 = bad) • 2. Absence of gross perceptual distortions (0-10; 0 = good, 10 = bad) • 3. Response that seems indicative of psychopathology (0-10; 0 = good, 10 = bad) • Score: _____

  19. Make up a short story about this picture

  20. Scoring Criteria for Stimulus #2 • 1. Creativity (0-10; 0 = good, 10 = bad) • 2. Absence of gross perceptual distortions (0-10; 0 = good, 10 = bad) • 3. Response that seems indicative of psychopathology (0-10; 0 = good, 10 = bad) • Score: _____

  21. Human Figure Drawing • On the board, draw a picture of yourself and a loved one.

  22. Scoring Criteria for Stimulus #3 • 1. Response that seems indicative of psychopathology (0-30; 0 = good, 30 = bad) based on signs like line heaviness, big eyes, head size, and whether figures are touching. • Score: _____ • Total Score: ______ (0-90)

  23. Evaluating the Brett Deacon Test • Standardization – administration, scoring? • Reliability – internal consistency, inter-rater, test-retest? • Validity – content, concurrent/predictive, incremental? • Norms?

  24. Projective Personality Assessment • Projective vs. objective personality tests • Characteristics of projective tests: • 1. A person “projects” some part of themselves onto an ambiguous stimulus • 2. Methods are unstructured • 3. Purpose is often disguised

  25. Projective vs. Objective Assessment • 4. Use a global approach to personality • 5. Designed to measure unconscious elements of the personality • 6. Often interpreted from psychoanalytic perspective • 7. Often interpreted in idiographic manner (i.e., test taker is a “unique individual” vs. comparing test taker’s responses to others’ responses from the normative sample)

  26. Most Commonly Used Tests • Ball et al. (1994) - survey of 151 practicing clinical psychologists • 1. Wechsler IQ Scales 2. Rorschach • 3. TAT 4. MMPI • 5. WRAT 6. BVMGT • 7. Sentence Completion 8. Human Figure Drawings • 9. House-Tree-Person 10. BDI

  27. Most Commonly Used Tests • Ball et al. (1994) - survey of 151 practicing clinical psychologists • 1. Wechsler IQ Scales 2. Rorschach • 3. TAT 4. MMPI • 5. WRAT 6. BVMGT • 7. Sentence Completion 8. Human FigureDrawings • 9. House-Tree-Person 10. BDI

  28. Most Commonly Used Tests in *Child Custody Evaluations* • Ackerman & Ackerman (1997) - survey of 201 psychologists from 39 states • 1. Intelligence tests 2. TAT • 3. Bricklin Perceptual Scales 4. Sentence Completion • 5. Achievement Test 6. Rorschach • 7. Projective Drawings 8. MMPI-A • 9. House-Tree-Person 10. Kinetic Family Drawing

  29. Response Paper Questions for Hunsley, Lee, & Wood (2003) Article • Questions • 1. Why do you think these tests are so commonly used by practicing psychologists? • 2. Should these tests be taught to clinical psychology graduate students? • 3. Is there sufficient justification for using the Rorschach, TAT, projective drawings, or anatomically detailed dolls in forensic settings?