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Warm-up. What instrument would you use to measure temperature? Which of the following is a unit of volume? a. gram b. atmosphere c. meter d. liter What property of matter can you measure using a graduated cylinder? . Thermometer. Volume. Classifying Matter.

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warm up
Warm-up
  • What instrument would you use to measure temperature?
  • Which of the following is a unit of volume?

a. gram b. atmosphere c. meter d. liter

  • What property of matter can you measure using a graduated cylinder?

Thermometer

Volume

classifying matter
Classifying Matter
  • Classify pure substances as elements and compounds.
  • Describe the characteristics of an element and the symbols used to identify elements.
  • Distinguish pure substances from mixtures.
  • Classify mixtures as heterogeneous or homogeneous.
  • Classify mixtures as solutions, suspensions, or colloids.
matter
Matter?
  • What is matter?
    • Anything that has mass and takes up space
  • Why do we need to classify matter?
    • Not all matter is the same.
    • Different types of matter must be treated differently.
    • Example
      • Not all clothes are made of the same fabric.
      • Clothes require different washing techniques.
matter classification
Matter Classification

Matter

Pure Substances

Mixtures

Elements

Compounds

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

pure substances
Pure Substances
  • Made up of all the same thing or one type of matter.
  • Pure substances have the same properties regardless of sample.
  • Either compounds or elements
elements
Elements
  • Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
  • Think of atoms.
  • Contain only one type of atom.
  • It has a fixed composition
    • Ingredients can’t change.
  • Identified by symbol
  • Examples of elements:
    • Aluminum (Al), Gold (Au), Carbon (C) - solids
    • Bromine (Br2), Mercury (Hg) - liquids
    • Oxygen (O2), Nitrogen (N2) - gases
compounds
Compounds
  • Substances that are made up of two or more simpler substances that can be broken down.
    • They are combined in chemically defined ratios.
    • H2O – Water, C6H12O6 – Glucose (Sugar).
    • The elements have different properties when alone.
    • Hydrogen and Oxygen are flammable as elements.
    • But water is not flammable.
  • Identified by formula
mixtures
Mixtures
  • The make-up of mixtures are not fixed.
  • Properties vary by mixture contents.
  • They retain some of the properties of the individual substances.
  • Sand is an example of mixture.
    • One could find sand from many different beaches but all could have a very different make up.
  • Mixtures can be classified by how well the parts of the mixture are distributed throughout it.
heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • The Greek words hetero and genus meaning “different” and “kind.”
  • Two or more types of atoms, physically combined in no definite ratio.
  • Different throughout.
homogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Two or more substances, physically combined in no definite ratio.
  • Same throughout.
  • Must be a SOLUTION
  • A solute dissolved in a solvent.
measuring the volume of liquids
Measuring the volume of liquids
  • Liquids have volume. We measure that volume with a graduated cylinder.
  • Notice the meniscus in the graduated cylinder.
  • Always measure at the bottom of the meniscus!
  • A liquid in any container has a meniscus.
  • Liters (L) and mL (milliliters) are most often used to express the volume of liquids.
solid volume
Solid Volume
  • If each side in the cube below is 2m, what is the volume of the cube?

__________

  • The volume in a solid is always expressed in cubic units.
  • Cubic means having “three dimensions.”
  • Cubic meters(m3) or cubic centimeters(cm3) are most often used to express the volume of a solid.
  • The 3 in m3 signifies that three quantities were used to get the final result. (That is a derived quantity!)
the volume of solids liquids and gases
The Volume of Solids, Liquids, and Gases
  • 1 mL = 1 cm3 REMEMBER THAT!
  • That is why you can compare the volume in liquids to solids.
  • How do you measure the volume of a gas?
  • You can’t see, so how do you measure it?

ex: balloon

_________________________

measuring weight and mass
Measuring Weight and Mass
  • The SI unit for mass is kilogram (kg).
  • Sometimes we will use milligrams or grams. (mg or g)
  • The SI unit for weight (or gravitational force) is NEWTONS.
  • A Newton is approximately equal to the weight of a 100 gram mass on earth.
the major differences between
The major differences between
  • WEIGHT
  • A measure of the gravitational force on an object.
  • Varies depending on where the object is in relation to the earth. Example: ____________
  • Measured with a spring scale.
  • Expressed in Newtons.
  • MASS
  • A measure of the amount of matter in object.
  • Always constant, no matter the location.
  • Measured with a balance.
  • Expressed in kilograms, grams, and milligrams.
describing matter
Describing Matter
  • Knowing the characteristics or properties of an object can help you identify the object.
  • There are:
    • Physical Properties
    • Chemical Properties
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • Things that describe the object are physical properties.
  • Physical properties can also be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter.
  • Examples of physical properties include: color, odor, size, state, density, solubility, melting point, etc…
spotlight on density
Spotlight on Density
  • Density is a very helpful physical property.
  • Density = mass per unit of volume or Density = mass/volume
  • Density is an excellent help in identifying substances because each substance has its own density.
chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical properties describe a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties.
  • Ex: wood burns to form ash and smoke
  • Chemical properties cannot be observed with your senses.
  • Chemical properties aren’t as easy to observe as physical properties.
  • Examples of chemical properties: flammability and reactivity
characteristic properties
Characteristic Properties
  • The properties that are most useful in identifying a substance are its characteristic properties.
  • Remember the difference between physical and chemical properties.
  • Physical properties can be observed! (with your eyes!) IDENTITY OF SUBSTANCE DOES NOT CHANGE!
  • You can observe chemical properties only in situations in which the identity of the substance could change.
physical changes
Physical Changes
  • A physical change is a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance.
  • Physical changes do not form new substances! EX: ice melting or sugar dissolving
  • Physical changes are easy to undo.
chemical changes
Chemical Changes
  • A chemical change occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with different properties.
  • You can observe chemical properties only when a chemical change might occur!
  • Examples of chem. changes:

baking a cake

rusting

clues to chemical changes
Clues to chemical changes
  • Color change
  • Fizzing or bubbling (gas production)
  • Heat
  • Production of light, sound, or odor.
  • Chemical changes are not usually reversible!