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Instructor’s Name Semester, 200_. Chapter Objectives. Define the terms environmental health and environmental hazard. Explain the relationship between environmental sanitation, sanitary engineers, and the prevention of waterbourne disease outbreaks.

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Instructor’s Name

Semester, 200_

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Define the terms environmental health and environmental hazard.
  • Explain the relationship between environmental sanitation, sanitary engineers, and the prevention of waterbourne disease outbreaks.
  • Explain the meaning of waterbourne, foodbourne, and vectorbourne diseases and give examples of each.
  • Define the term vector and give examples.
chapter objectives3
Chapter Objectives
  • Define pest, pesticides, target organism, and persistent and nonpersistent pesticides.
  • Identify the major chemical categories of pesticides.
  • Define environmental tobacco smoke, mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke, and passive smoking.
  • Describe the legislation in place to deal with environmental tobacco smoke.
chapter objectives4
Chapter Objectives
  • Describe the sources of lead in the environment and how progress was made in reducing lead levels during the 1990s.
  • Define ionizing radiation and give examples.
  • Explain the dangers of radon gas.
  • Explain how human activities have increased the risk or skin cancer by altering the environment.
chapter objectives5
Chapter Objectives
  • Describe the state of population growth in the world.
  • Interpret the relationship between population growth and human health.
  • Outline some solutions to population growth.
  • Define natural disaster and disaster agent.
  • Environment
    • the external conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the growth and development of an organism or community of organisms.
  • Environmental Health
    • study and management of environmental conditions that affect human health
  • Environmental Hazards
    • factors or conditions in the environment that increase the risk of human injury, disease, or death.
biological hazards and human health
Biological Hazards and Human Health
  • Biological hazards
    • living organisms, or their products, that increase the risk of disease of death in humans.
  • Environmental sanitation
    • the practice of establishing and maintaining health and hygienic conditions on the environment.
  • Sanitary engineer
biological hazards and human health8
Biological Hazards and Human Health
  • Water-borne diseases
    • poliovirsus – amoebic dysentery
    • hepatitis A virus – Giardia
    • Shigella – Crytosporidium
    • Cholera
  • Spread by Feces in Water
    • municipal water treatment facilities purify water
  • Outbreaks still occur
  • Fluoridation
  • Food-borne diseases
    • Salmonella
    • Clostridium botulinum
  • Protection
    • Public Health Inspection by Sanitarians
    • Hand washing
  • Outbreaks of food-borne diseases
vectorbourne diseases
Vectorbourne Diseases
  • Standing water provide habitat for
    • pools
    • tires
    • open dumps
  • Zoonoses
    • murine typhus
    • Lyme disease
vector borne biological hazards
Vector-Borne Biological Hazards

Hazard Agent Vector Disease

Virus SLE virus Mosquito St. Louis encephalitis

LaCrosse Mosquito LaCrosse encephalitis

Rickettsiae R. typhi Flea Murine typhus

R. rickettsii Tick Rocky Mt. spotted fever

Bacteria Yersinia pestis Flea Bubonic plaque

Borrelia burg. Tick Lyme disease

Protozoa Plasmodium sp. Mosquito Malaria

Nematodes Wuchereria ban. Mosquito Filariasis(elephantiasis)

chemical hazards and human health
Chemical Hazards and Human Health
  • Pesticides
    • herbicides
    • insecticides
  • Target organism
  • Ideal
    • inexpensive
    • kill only target organism
    • break down rapidly
    • break down into harmless chemicals
chemical hazards and human health13
Chemical Hazards and Human Health
  • Environmental tobacco smoke
    • sidestream smoke
    • mainstream smoke
  • Education
  • Regulation
  • Policy
chemical hazards and human health14
Chemical Hazards and Human Health
  • Lead
    • health concerns: anemia, birth defects, bone damage, neurological damage, kidney damage
    • children at greatest risk
    • sources: gasoline, water pipes & drinking water tainted by lead leached from landfills
physical hazards and human health
Physical Hazards and Human Health
  • Radon Contamination
  • Ultraviolet Radiation
psychological hazards and human health
Psychological Hazards and Human Health
  • Difficult to define and measure
  • Many mental states associated
sociological hazards and human health
Sociological Hazards and Human Health
  • Often combined with other environmental hazards
  • Population growth demonstrates sociological hazards
population growth
Population Growth
  • Population growth attributed to

1. Birth rate

2. Death rate

3. Migration

  • Principles
    • lag phase
    • exponential phase
    • equilibrium phase
population growth s curve
Population Growth - S- Curve

Equilibrium Phase?

Exponential Phase

Lag phase

population growth20
Population Growth
  • Issues
    • global warming
    • acid rain
    • depletion of the ozone
    • increasing crime rates
    • epidemics
  • Solutions
    • various methods of conception control
    • birth control methods
    • social policies
site location hazards human health
Natural disasters

geophysical & meteorological events

involves interaction of disaster agents

magnitude of overall loss

biological, psychological, & sociological hazards increase

Primary needs after a disaster




health care


Federal Emergency Response Agency

Site & Location Hazards & Human Health
natural disasters
Natural Disasters
  • Emergency Support Functions (Federal Agencies)
    • Transportation (DOT) - Health & medical (DHHS & PHS)
    • Communications (NCS) - Resources support (GSA)
    • Construction (DOD) - Urban search & rescue (DOD)
    • Firefighting (DOA) - Hazardous materials (EPA)
    • Damage information (FEMA) - Food (DOA)
    • Mass care (ARC) - Energy (DOE)

Chapter 16

The Impact Of Environment

on Human Health