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Digital Cameras

Digital Cameras

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Digital Cameras

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  1. Digital Cameras And Digital Information

  2. How a Camera works • Light passes through the lens • Shutter opens for an instant • Film is ________________ • Film is developed using chemicals

  3. Analog vs. Digital • Analog • _________________ • Smooth Gradations • Natural capture • ________________ • Digital • Values measured • Points and positions • ________________ • Electrical

  4. Bit = " ________________." Binary Code: ________________, 8 bit 2^0, 2^1,2^3….2^7= 8 bits The code: 1011 (1 * 2^3) + (0 * 2^2) + (1 * 2^1) + (1 * 2^0) Conversion = ________________ = 11 Binary Code

  5. Bits and Bytes • 8 Bits in a ________________ • 01100111 (Byte) • With 8 bits in a byte, you can represent ________________ values ranging from 0 to 255, as shown here: 0 = 00000000 1 = 00000001 2 = 00000010 ... 254 = 11111110 255 = 11111111

  6. Bits and Color This is why we have a 256 color limit in an 8-bit system

  7. Digital Camera ________________ • Contains array of millions of pixels • Record Light intensity • Convert light into ________________ • CCD in Action • http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/digital-camera1.htm

  8. Capturing Color • CCD cells are ________________ • Only see in B/W or 1/0 • _________________________ filters • Allows only one color to pass through • Color Capture • http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/digital-camera3.htm

  9. Color Filtering (interpolated) • Color Filter Array • Permanent Filter pattern placed on each photo site (pixel group) • ________________ • Process of using neighboring colors to determine the true color of a pixel • Algorithm (compression) • http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/digital-camera4.htm

  10. Resolution Table http://fred.dsimprove.be/__offSite/pixel/static.php The ________________ of an image Printed or Digital Standards for each DPI, PPI Dots Per Inch, Pixels Per Inch printing resolution, in particular the number of individual dots of ink a printer or toner can produce within a linear one-inch space. Resolution

  11. Pixel Depth & Resolution

  12. DPI & PPI • Dots ________________ • measure of printing resolution, in particular the number of individual dots of ink a printer or toner can produce within a linear one-inch space. • ________ Per Inch • Screen resolution of 1024x768 means 1,024 pixels (dots) horizontally across each of 768 lines (www.answers.com) • x65k or x60 hz • Colors or cycles

  13. Bitmap Graphics • ________________ of pixels • Color • The color of each pixel is often consist of colored pixels defined by ________________ RGB • Depth of Color • image that stores 24 bits of color information per pixel (the standard for all displays since around 1995) 1 byte for each color

  14. How Does it Work?

  15. Vector Graphic • based upon ________ mathematical equations to represent images in computer graphics • Since the art is made from a series of _________ __________ it will print very crisp no matter how you resize the art.

  16. File Types & Ratings • TIFF • _____________ (uncompressed) • Raw Files from Cameras and Scanners • 16 bit grayscale as well as _____________ • commonly used file format for scientific images (no loss of info) • Very large files • ____ ____________ with all programs

  17. File Types & Ratings • PNG / PSD • portable network graphics • ____ _________ (preserves layers) • lossless compression • supports 48-bit color and 16 grayscale, lossless compression • Supports _____________ • Compatible with _________ ___________ only

  18. File Types & Ratings • JPEG • joint photographic experts group • 24-bit color • _____________ compression technique (discrete cosine function) • Flattened Images (no layers) • Does not support Transparency!!! • Compatible with ____ _________ • High quality 319K, medium quality 188K

  19. File Types & Ratings • GIF • graphics exchange format • _____________ Transparency • has a 256 color palette limitation • _____________, limited files • Compatible with all software • BMP • lossless compression • only 256 colors • Small & simple • Compatible with ____ _________

  20. Works Cited • Structure of digital camerashttp://www-users.mat.uni.torun.pl/~olka/budowa.html • Binary numeral system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_number#Conversion_to_and_from_other_numeral_systems • www.howstuffworks.com How Digital Cameras work • www.howstuffworks.com How Cameras work