Co-Teaching EDPS 410/665 Spring 2014
LRE Decision Process • Document current level of performance • Develop student IEP objectives • Determine how the objective or related set of objectives can be taught in the general education classroom. • Consider: accommodations, modifications, personnel supports, settings
LRE process cont. • Determine alternative LRE instructional settings for those objectives that cannot be taught in the general ed setting with the“use of supplementary aids and services.” • Identify what additional settings or activities will provide opportunities for interactions with nondisabled peers. 6. Determine how student performance on IEP objectives will be evaluated
Personnel Supports • General Education: student with a disability is served in the general ed class with no additional personnel support. • Consultation: student receives at least one segment per month of direct service from the special education teacher • Supportive instruction: student receives services from personnel other than a certified teacher in the general education classroom
Determine & document current levels of performance • Develop student’s IEP objectives • How can the objective(s) be taught in the general ed classroom? The LRE Process Mods & Accomms. Settings Personnel Supports • For objectives that can’t be taught in GenEd, identify SpEd & community settings • Identify additional settings/activities to provide opportunity for interaction with nondisabled peers
What is Co-Teaching? • Co-teaching involves two or more certified professionals who contract to share instructional responsibility for a single group of students primarily in a single classroom or workspace for specific content or objectives with mutual ownership, pooled resources and joint accountability. • Friend & Cook, 2000
Co-Teaching • Involves two or more professionals • Involves heterogeneous groups of students • Shared delivery of instruction • Shared physical space
Advantages to the General Educator • ALL students learn - label or not . • More time to learn content & share learning strategies. • Less focus on individual problems. • 2X the opportunity to assist students. • Background info on special education students is provided. • With help of special educator, meet the needs of individual student learning styles. • Support for students who need organizational strategies! • Peer pressure for appropriate behavior--negative behaviors are decreased. • Professional growth . . . greater personal satisfaction!
Advantages for the Special Educator • Time effective • Teach with a content area expert and learn the expectations of the general education classroom. • Spend more time and energy in assisting students to develop motivation, effort, and responsibility for their own learning. • Have more opportunities to use learning strategies within content areas and to move toward generalization. • "Reality check" for student goals within the general education setting. • Partnership with a colleague in support of student IEP goals. • Rewards of viewing first hand students' success and establishing credibility among their peers. • Improved student behaviors. • Mutual learning and appreciation for each other's expertise. • Professional growth . . . greater personal satisfaction!
Advantages for ALL Students • More time spent working cooperatively, learning content, and understanding students with different abilities. • Strong emphasis on learning skills, organizational responsibility and preparedness. • Diverse learning techniques and teaching techniques available. • More contact time with teachers for school and personal issues. • Unique learning needs met to the greatest extent possible • Improved self-esteem. • Opportunities for leadership and growth within the least restrictive environment. • Less fear of failure due to successful experiences. • Enhanced sense of responsibility. • Better / more meaningful grades
Framework for Co-Teaching • Shared system of beliefs • Prerequisite skills • Collaboration • Classroom Practices • Administrative Issues
Shared system of beliefs • Teacher roles • Student participation level • Behavior management styles • Equal partnership
Prerequisite Skills • Individual prerequisites • Personal qualities and skills • Pedagogical qualities and skills • Discipline-specific qualities and skills
Collaboration Levels • Planning • Presenting • Processing • Problem-solving
Approaches to Co-Teaching • One teach/one observe • One teach/one circulate • Station teaching model • Parallel teaching • Alternative teaching • Team teaching
Cooperative Learning • All students are assigned to heterogeneous groups and, under the guidance of the teacher, help one another master content previously presented by the teacher.
Administrative Issues • Create culture for collaboration • Creates opportunities for problem-solving • A neutral 3rd party • Creates logistics that make co-teaching feasible
Issues for Co-Teaching • Content and modifications • Planning • Instructional format • Parity • Use of classroom space • Noise level • Routines • Discipline • Feedback • Student assessment • Teaching chores • Confidentiality • Pet peeves • Whose students are these?
Lesson Planning • General education teachers usually plan for groups of students • Special education teachers typically plan for individuals
Co-Planning Lessons • Identify theme, topic, or goal of lesson • Locate content in textbook and/or printed curriculum • Which students cannot benefit from that content? • all or nearly all students? • by most of the students? • some of the students? • None of the students? • How will activities take place? • Who will be in each group or activity? • What activities will keep each student motivated and busy? • When, where, and for how long will the lesson plan be taught? • Who is primarily responsible for each of the activities and assessments?
Definitions • “…to make fit or suitable by changing or adjusting”(Webster’s Third World Dictionary, 1994) • “a thing resulting from adapting; a change in structure, function, or form that improves the chance of survival…within a given environment.” • “any device or material that is used to accomplish a task in everyday life.”
Deciding to Use an Adaptation • Instruction in specific skills cannot quickly meet the student’s need because the students disability prohibits the completion of the task in the same manner as the other students
Considerations • Is the adaptation portable for use across environments? • Is the adaptation age-appropriate? • Is the adaptation durable for frequent use or use over time? • Does the adaptation appear to be the least intrusive during activities and the natural flow of events? • Will funding of the adaptation be an issue? • Is the adaptation accessible within the team and resource parameters of the education team?
Successful Adaptations • Must befeasible for teachers to implement • Must be lively, engaging, andfun • Must be developed with the goal of working toward independence, with a gradual fading andeventual eliminationof the adaptation • Must have a definite purpose
Successful Adaptations • Should be part of a comprehensive plan • Should benefit the student and enhance, or at least not detract from the learning of other students • Do not place undue attention on the student or put the student in a potentially embarrassing situation • Are continually evaluated
4 Types of Adaptations • Environmental • Material • Instructional • Activity
Environmental Adaptations • Behavioral arrangement • Physical arrangement • Sensory arrangement
Material Adaptations • Alter COMPLEXITY of format • Alter MOTOR requirements • Alter SENSORY requirements • Use of technology
Instructional Modifications • Instructional Groupings • Teaching Format • Rate of Instruction • Alternative Approaches
Instructional Modifications cont. • Adjust language level • Reduce amount of instruction given at one time • Sequence activities in a logical manner • Settings where skills can be functionally taught • Advanced organizers
Activity Adaptations • Use adapted or functional materials that parallel the regular activity • Determine the functional outcome of the activity and allow for alternative student responses • Engage student in selected parts of an activity
Activity Adaptations • Reduce the number of required responses • Within an activity, define different outcomes • Allow additional time to complete an activity • Increase amount of demonstrations and hands on experiences