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Environment Impact Assessment and Statement. By : Kawaldeep Singh (50802036) Mandeepak Singh (50802038) Rajdeep Singh (50802053) Shivkaran Singh (50802061) Sukhdeep Singh Brar (50802064). Role of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) :.

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Environment Impact

Assessment and Statement

By :

Kawaldeep Singh (50802036)

Mandeepak Singh (50802038)

Rajdeep Singh (50802053)

Shivkaran Singh (50802061)

Sukhdeep Singh Brar (50802064)


Role of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) :

Over recent years,

EIAs have become firmly entrenched as a mainstream part of the planning process.

Even when EIA may not be a statutory requirement have a proven track record of helping to appease public concern or opposition to a development and reassuring planners


EIA Practices and Constraints :

  • EIA Notification (2006) as a guideline
    • Mandatory for all EIA consultants to follow
  • Site suitability
    • Sites are frozen without IEE therefore pressure on EIA study
  • Project magnitude and dimension
    • At pre-feasibility report stage, the design is fluid, process is not firmed up and product slate uncertain
  • Proponents mile stones
    • The reports are required almost in the yesterday’s date, time not given for proper and detailed study
  • EIA’s requirement is more regulatory driven than environmental sustainability of the project

Project Attributes : Limitations

  • Availability of project Details (Project Feasibility)
  • Site suitability
  • Land availability and requirement (not proportionate)
  • Natural resource availability
    • Air and Water shed delineations
    • Water balance
    • Land use / diversion
    • Biodiversity
  • Social Aspects
  • Time Frame
  • CRZ / sanctuary / forest / National parks / Rehabilitation and Resettlement

Environmental Attributes

  • Availability of dependable time series secondary data for all components of Environment .
  • Primary data collection – field survey
    • Site accessibility
    • Facilities available in the site
    • Conducive environment
    • Sensitivity
    • Equipment and human safety
    • Site laboratory backup

Environmental Attributes (Contd…)

  • Primary Data collection – laboratory strength and weakness (instrument support, manpower support, equipment support for all parameters)

Parameter selection

Air Environment :

  • Sampling procedure, preservation, analysis, quality control, reproducibility and consistency
    • Criteria pollutant and project specific pollutants. Adequate knowledge of the process and primary and secondary pollutants likely to generate
    • Parameters related to health impacts direct and indirect. Pollutant associated with particles in the atmosphere and their toxicity assessment

Calibration of the methodology and validity of data .

  • Source apportionment and establish effect relationship.

Parameter selection

Water Environment :

  • Project specific parameters and the background water quality
    • Background water quality – surface and ground and at the source requires to be assessed comprehensively to mark the environmental foot prints of the project
    • Certain parameters though project specific can not be assessed for want of methodology

Primary data can not be generated on quantity in the timeframe, dependence only on secondary data .

  • Lean season data must be assessed for proper assessment of quantity.
  • Quantitative chemical and microbial risk assessment of the source not done in the EIA studies for want of time.

Parameter selection

Land and Biological Environment :

  • Most of the data is accessed through secondary sources by the consultant in biological environment
    • A comprehensive biodiversity study in the impact zone is a necessity yet can not be done in the time frame available for the project
    • Flora fauna including avi-fauna is required particularly in the area close to sanctuaries, reserved forest or national parks
    • Cost constraint and reservation from the proponents for spending the money

Data for land use / land pattern is available through remote sensing data but availability of toposheets is a constraint in certain areas.

Parameter selection

Social and Health Environment :

  • Generation of data base through primary surveys is difficult due to time constraints as well as social awareness
  • Data base has to be accessed from secondary sources however, its authentication is difficult a problem
  • Social impacts is forerunner to EIA in majority of the cases where POPs are more
  • Cost benefit analysis of land diversion vis-à-vis development is not available

Impact Prediction

  • Methodology not uniform with all the consultants
  • Availability of models, suitable for predictive exercise and applicable for a specific location is some times a constraint
  • Models are very costly and can not be available will all the consultants
  • Data inputs for application of model are not available and its collection / collation is a big exercise and requires a large network of data collection
  • Application of model or running the model differ from model user to user and does not give consistent result
  • Selection of model needs to be brainstormed by the EIA professionals to get real impacts
  • Quantification needs to be properly done and source (point, area, line) need to be properly defined.

Environmental Management Plans (EMP)

  • International reference available for certain case studies can not be accepted for Indian conditions
  • Most of the licences for the industries are based on foreign know how and therefore difficult to match it with preventive EMP hence Reliance is more on control
  • EMP implementation is with industry however, role of consultant is not properly defined in the implementation of EMP
  • Evaluation of EMP should be done in consultation with EIA consultant and monitored periodically

Post Project Monitoring Plan

  • The identified impacts and the predicted values need to be validated through post project monitoring. This is not regularly done
  • EIA consultant should build up the capacity to handle post-project monitoring requirement and should have the knowledge to correct EMP if required
  • Review of EMP based on post-project monitoring is a necessity and role of EIA consultant should be more defined both in the commissioning post commissioning stage of the project

Aims and objectives of EIA

EIA can:

  • modify and improve design
  • ensure efficient resource use
  • enhance social aspects
  • identify key impacts and measures for mitigating them
  • inform decision-making and condition-setting
  • avoid serious and irreversible damage to the environment
  • protect human health and safety

Environmental impacts

  • Type and nature
  • Magnitude
  • Extent
  • Timing
  • Duration
  • Uncertainty
  • Reversibility
  • Significance

Integration within EIA

The EIA process addresses the following environmental effects:

  • Biophysical and resource use
  • Social and cultural
  • Health and safety
  • Economic and fiscal
  • Landscape and visual
  • Indigenous peoples’ rights and traditional areas

US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

NEPA called for:

  • consideration of environmental values in decision making.
  • use of a systematic, interdisciplinary approach.
  • a detailed statement on:

- the environmental impact of proposals

- any adverse effects which cannot be avoided

      • alternatives to the proposed action
  • making the statement available to the public.

This process became known as

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)


Evolution of EIA

  • early 1970s — initial development.
  • 1970s to 1980s — increasing scope.
  • mid to late 1980s — process strengthening and policy integration.
  • mid 1990s — towards sustainability (SEA, Biodiversity).

EIA—Three core values

  • integrity - the EIA process will conform to agreed standards.
  • utility - the EIA process will provide balanced, credible information for decision-making.
  • sustainability - the EIA process will result in environmental safeguards

EIA — Guiding principles

The EIA process should be:

  • purposive – meeting its aims and objectives.
  • focused – concentrating on the effects that matter.
  • adaptive – responding to issues and realities.
  • participative – fully involving the public.
  • transparent – clear and easily understood.

EIA — Guiding principles (continued)

  • rigorous – employing ‘best practicable’ methodology.
  • practical – establishing mitigation measures that work.
  • credible – carried out with objectivity and professionalism.
  • efficient – imposing least cost burden on proponents.

Key operating principles of good EIA practice

EIA should:

  • be applied to all proposals with significant impacts.
  • begin early in the project cycle.
  • address relevant environmental, social and health impacts.
  • identify and take account of public views.
  • result in a statement of impacts and mitigation measures.
  • facilitate informed decision making and condition setting.

The EIA Process

The EIA process comprises

  • screening - to decide if and at what level EIA should be applied.
  • scoping - to identify the important issues and prepare terms of reference .
  • impact analysis - to predict the effects of a proposal and evaluate their significance .
  • mitigation - to establish measures to prevent, reduce or compensate for impacts .

The EIA Process (continued)

  • reporting - to prepare the information necessary for decision-making.
  • review - to check the quality of the EIA report.
  • decision-making - to approve (or reject) the proposal and set conditions.
  • follow up – to monitor, manage and audit the impacts of project implementation.
  • public involvement - to inform and consult with stakeholders.

Benefits of EIA include:

  • environmentally sound and sustainable design .
  • better compliance with standards.
  • savings in capital and operating costs.
  • reduced time and costs for approvals.
  • increased project acceptance.
  • better protection of the environment and human health.

Delays are caused during EIA when:

  • the EIA is commenced too late in the project cycle .
  • the terms of reference are poorly drafted.
  • the EIA is not managed to a schedule.
  • the EIA report is inadequate and needs to be upgraded.
  • there is a lack of technical data.

Ensuring fairness in the EIA process :

  • register consultants’ names and terms of reference.
  • name consultants and their expertise in the EIA report.
  • publish the terms of reference in the EIA report.
  • make EIA reports available to the public.
  • publish lists of screening and final decisions along with conditions for approval.