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Chapter 15 Social Work and Services in the Criminal Justice System. Pg. 467-468 Introducing Crime and Criminal Justice Adjudication – passing legal judgment Incarceration – confining by putting in prison or jail
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Chapter 15 Social Work and Services in the Criminal Justice System
Pg. 467-468 Introducing Crime and Criminal Justice Adjudication – passing legal judgment Incarceration – confining by putting in prison or jail Rehabilitation – restoring to a state of productive, noncriminal functioning in society. Crime – the commission of a harmful offense or act that is legally prohibited. Law – body of formal principles and decisions established by gov’t that determine what behavior is appropriate and allowed and what is not.
Pg. 468-469 Highlight 15.1 Main Types of Crime Felonies– offenses punishable by at least a year in prison and possibly even death. Misdemeanors – less severe offenses, w/ punishment ranging from incarceration of less than a year to monetary fine. Violent crime Homicide – causing the death of another person without legal justification or excuse. Aggravated assault – attacking another person w/ the intent to inflict serious harm or kill that person. Rape – sexual penetration against a person’s will through the use or threat of force. Robbery – stealing property by using force or threatening force. Property crime Larceny – simple theft, stealing property. Burglary – breaking into a house or other building w/ the intent to steal. Motor vehicle theft – stealing vehicle Arson – the malicious burning of another’s property, or sometimes one’s own property as an attempt to collect insurance.
Pg. 469, highlight 15.1 Other types of crime White-collar crime – committed by upper and middle class pple in their business and social activities. Corporate crime – illegal acts committed by large organizations to enhance profits. Victimless (vice) crimes – illegal acts that technically have no victim. Ex. Prostitution, selling illegal drugs, etc. Organized (syndicated) crime – illegal acts committed by an organized, hierarchical network of professional criminals. Hate crime – violence of intolerance and bigotry, intended to hurt and intimidate someone because of their race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or disability.
Pg 468-470 Who Commits Crimes? Race – pple of color are more likely to be poor and to live in urban areas. They are also more likely to be arrested and incarcerated than wealthier white counterparts. Pple of color are subject to racial profiling. Social Class – more than 2/3rds of men and almost 90% of women currently in prison have poverty-stricken or working-class backgrounds. Gender – the crime rate of women is increasing proportionally w/ respect to men. Are Crime Rates Rising or Falling? Uniform Crime Report is a document that lists the official statistics of crimes reported to police. Crime statistics indicate that crime rates have been decreasing since the 1980s until a 2% increase in serious crime occurred b/t 2000 and 2001. Crime statistics may be misleading because many are not reported.
Pg 471 An Ethical Dilemma: Punishment Versus Empowerment Prisons punish people who commit crimes by denying them freedom for some designated period. Prisons discourage people who have committed crimes from committing them again and deter others from committing them in the first place. Prisons protect potential victims from dangerous offenders by putting them behind bars. Prisons provide rehabilitation through programs involving therapy, education, and job training.
Pg 472 An Ethical Dilemma: Punishment Versus Empowerment To what extent does incapacitation as a means of control and punishment conflict with the basic social work values of self-determination and empowerment? How can social workers who are empowerment oriented function in such a constricted and controlled setting? Should offenders be forced to participate in treatment activities against their will?
Pg 472 An Ethical Dilemma: Punishment Versus Empowerment Suggestions for working with offenders (Garvin and Tropman): When possible, help offenders identify alternative behaviors to solve problems and address their needs. Advocate for inmates when prison conditions work against their best interests. Provide opportunities for individual and group treatment for inmates to work on personal issues. Seek positions in prison administration so as to improve prison policies concerning humane rehabilitation approaches. Advocate in the macro arena for less punitive legislation that provides greater opportunity for rehabilitation.
Pg 472 An Ethical Dilemma: Punishment Versus Empowerment Conservative Versus Liberal Value Orientations Toward Crime and Criminals What are your personal values concerning the issues described in the previous slides? To what extent do your values reflect a conservative perspective that emphasizes individuals’ responsibility for their own behavior and that people who do bad things deserve to be punished? To what extent do you support a liberal approach that focuses on rehabilitating offenders and emphasizes the idea that people will thrive and do well when given enough support?
Pg 472 An Ethical Dilemma: Punishment Versus Empowerment Conservative Versus Liberal Value Orientations Toward Crime and Criminals To what extent should resources be used to build more prisons and keep offenders in prison longer? Or to what extent should resources be diverted to rehabilitation and the goal of reintegrating offenders into communities?
Pg 472-476 Criminal Justice Settings and Forensic Social Work Forensic social work – social work involving the law – both criminal and civil. Tasks include assessments on suspects’ mental competence to understand behavior and stand trial; make recommendations for child custody, divorce, and placement of juveniles. Adult Correctional Institutions – 5 functions: 1. provide individual or group counseling to inmates. 2. assist w/ job placement of prisoners in prison. 3. assist prison personnel in determining how individual inmates are treated. 4. advocate for improved conditions. Administrative Planning Centers – planning new programs and procedures, developing more humane policies, supervise lower-level administrators and employees. Community-Based Corrections: Probation and Parole Services Probation – when a person is convicted but a judge determines that confinement is not warranted. Instead the person is place on probation and allowed to live in society, but under supervision. Probation officers conduct assessments, help clients establish work and other living plans, see them regularly, oversee their activities, etc. Parole – the early release of inmates from prison based on the “promise and likelihood of good behavior”. Parole officers assess the amount of supervision necessary. Parolees must abide by the general restrictions and requirements established by their parole officer.
Pg 475-476 Victim/offender mediation programs – face to face confrontations between victims and offenders in which an impartial third party serves as a mediator. Restitution program – involves cash reimbursement from offenders to victims to compensate for losses. Victim Assistance Programs – designed to assist victims and witnesses in the stressful and potentially traumatic process of testifying. Can also assist with crisis intervention 24 hours after the crime occurs. Domestic Violence Services – the cycle of violence occurs in 3 phases. 1) Tension builds as the perpetrator become increasingly controlling, demanding, and annoyed w/ the victim. 2) explosion- the abusive incident in which he beats her to teach her a lesson. 3) honeymoon period – he makes up with the victim says loving things, etc. Reasons Women Stay ???
Pg 476-482 Juvenile Corrections – a range of interventions for young people whose actual or alleged behavior has brought them to the attention of law enforcement personnel or the courts. Questions concerning if a juveniles’ antisocial behavior is the responsibility of the parents, the child, or society. Youth Gangs – responsible for a wide variety of offenses including street crime, drug trafficking, etc. A new type of gang evolved, hybrid gang – is characterized by mixed racial and ethnic participation within a single gang. Defining Gangs – why do youth join gangs? Types of Gangs – Criminal-goal material gain through criminal activity. Conflict-turf oriented, will engage in violent battle for those who invade their turf. Retreatist – goal is to get “loaded” or “high” on mind-altering substances & w/draw from stresses of life. Prevention and Intervention Involving Gangs – prevention, intervention, and suppression. HONRA-police dept.
Pg 479, highlight 15.3 Mezzo Practice and Empowerment for African American Youths in the Juvenile Justice System Purpose is to enhance members’ self-respect, establish a stronger identity w/ African heritage and culture, create ties w/ positive peers, develop vocational aspirations, and strengthen members’ ability to make socially responsible decisions. An Afrocentric Approach – emphasizes both spirituality and connectedness with others in the environment, including family members and community residents.