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Photodynamic Therapy. Presented by: Amber Burks Dental Hygiene Student Danielle Chelette Dental Hygiene Student. Lamar Institute of Technology. Introduction of Photodynamic Therapy. Photodynamic therapy, also called PDT An anti-cancer therapy Locations PDT is most commonly applied to

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Photodynamic therapy

Photodynamic Therapy

Presented by:

Amber Burks

Dental Hygiene Student

Danielle Chelette

Dental Hygiene Student

Lamar Institute of Technology


Introduction of photodynamic therapy
Introduction of Photodynamic Therapy

  • Photodynamic therapy, also called PDT

  • An anti-cancer therapy

  • Locations PDT is most commonly applied to

  • Approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration


Importance of pdt
Importance of PDT

  • Alternative treatment option

  • Our goal/purpose

  • Routine cancer screening

  • We hope PDT become more commonly accepted in the clinical practice

  • “prolong survival in patients with inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life”


Photodynamic therapy1
Photodynamic Therapy

  • Three components

    • Photosensitizer

    • Light

    • Oxygen

    • Taken separately- non-harmful

    • Combined- cytotoxic effects


Process of photodynamic therapy
Process of Photodynamic Therapy

  • PDT is a 2 step process

    • First step/first appointment

      • Administration of the photosensitizer

      • Photosensitizer- Light absorbing compound that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction

        • Dye

        • Administered intravenously or topically

        • Several photosensitizers available

        • Time period needed between 1st and 2nd step

          • Reason for time/theories


Process of photodynamic therapy cont
Process of Photodynamic Therapy (cont.)

  • Second step/second appointment

    • Light activation

      • Lasers

      • Fluorescent lights

      • Several factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding which light source to use.

        • Size of the lesion

        • Cost

        • Absorption rate

        • Type of cancer


Process of photodynamic therapy cont1
Process of Photodynamic Therapy (cont.)

  • Light gives off wavelengths that are absorbed by the photosensitizer

  • 3 light sources with different penetrating abilities

    • Blue light- less penetrating

    • Red light- deeper penetrating ability

    • When the 3 components are combined it creates a non-thermal (cold) reaction

    • Destruction of tumors cells


Disadvantages
Disadvantages

  • Specialized equipment and training

  • Only used for localized tumors

  • Dye could unevenly disperse

  • Pain and swelling in affected areas after treatment

  • Side effects ranging from slight-severe

  • May experience lingering photosensitizers in the tissue lasting many days or weeks (discoloration)


Advantages
Advantages

  • Minimally invasive treatment

  • Performed in an outpatient clinic

  • Can be used before, during, or after chemotherapy and radiation therapy

  • Can be used where radiation is contraindicated

  • Small effect on connective tissues resulting in minimal scarring

  • Activates immune system and low systemic toxicity

  • High patient tolerance rate

  • Lower morbidity and deformity than traditional treatments

  • Simple, efficient, and economical


Successful trial
Successful Trial

  • Foscan

  • 128 patients

    • Advanced incurable head and neck carcinomas

    • 43% out of 128 showed elimination of their tumor

      • 35% had half or greater tumor reduction

      • The patients with complete tumor elimination had a 1 year follow-up

        • 35% continued to be cancer free


Clinical uses
Clinical Uses

  • Standard treatment option for:

    • Premalignant esophageal cancer

    • Early - advanced lung cancer

    • Process

    • Intravenous administration- Porfimer (Photophrine)

    • Light source- laser

    • 2 (30 min.) treatments

    • local/general anesthesia

    • Destruction of tumor cells

    • Re-evaluate after 1 month



Pdt at md anderson
PDT at MD Anderson Light Diffuser


Future research
Future Research Light Diffuser

  • Future is promising

  • Full potential has yet to be shown

  • Continuing research

    • New photosensitizers

    • Improved existing photosensitizers

    • Lower photosensitivity

    • Longer light wavelength activation