fem3104 topic 9 keselamatan kesihatan pekerjaan occupational safety health n.
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  2. INTRODUCTION • Work-related injury and disease present a serious and costly burden to all countries and a major challenge to managers, unions, governments and most especially workers themselves. • How injury and disease risks arise in the workplace?; what is the role of law in prevention and compensation?; and how managers and others can best address these issues?

  3. GLOBAL PICTURES OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS & WORK-RELATED DISEASES • According to the ILO, estimates for accidents and diseases, there are globally about Source: Global and Asian Trends for Safety and Health at Work Dr. J. Takala, Director, SafeWork International Labour Office, Geneva

  4. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH “The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations – total health of all at work” • The modern definition of Occupational Health (ILO and WHO) is:

  5. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARD: ``Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the workplace environment, or a combination of these``


  7. PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS Lack of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor interpersonal relations, work pressure, ambiguity, etc. Psychological & behavioral changes – hostility, aggressiveness, anxiety, depression, alcoholism, drug addiction, sickness absenteeism. Psychosomatic disorders- Hypertension, headache, body-ache, peptic ulcers, asthma, diabetes, heart disorders, etc.

  8. WHY HEALTH AND SAFETY IS IMPORTANT IN A MODERN WORLD a) the costs of failure; b) the fact that good health and safety standards actually drive high standards of productivity; and c) because the social attitude to poor health and safety standards is changing (growth of the corporate social responsibility agenda).

  9. In terms of health and safety failure in the UK, 35 million working days were lost in 2004/05due to work-related injury and ill health; two million people have illnesses which they believe have been caused or made worse by work; and 2.7 million people are claiming long-term incapacity benefit and are unable to work. In respect to financial cost to UK society, it has recently been estimated that health and safety failures for 2001/02 cost between £20 and £31.8 billion: losses which good management could have avoided. • Accidents and ill health can result in ‘unscheduled downtime’ for an organization and poor health and safety management and working environments can lead to lowered morale and motivation, and can thereby adversely affect productivity. • Modern society is generally less accepting of workplace deaths or injuries. Organisations can often only exist in an area because of the goodwill of their neighbours i.e. those who work or live nearby and those who make up the workforce or who are consumers. This acceptance is sometimes loosely termed the ‘licence to operate’ that a community grants a business; if a company behaves recklessly, then the community may remove this ‘licence’ by objecting, protesting, refusing employment or boycotting products and this direct action is becoming more common.

  10. ILO CONFERENCE IN 2003 • aims to promote more of a preventive approach to reducing work-related accidents and diseases and • to do so through the wider promotion of a preventative safety and health culture and better management of OSH at national and at enterprise levels. • The Strategy contains a structure for future action under 5 broad headings :

  11. 1 Promotion, awareness raising and advocacy • The World Day for Safety and Health at Work – held on 28 April every year – has now become one of the most important international events for promoting OSH. • In 2004, 111 countries reported a wide range of activities related to the World Day, while in 2005 the figure rose to 115 countries. • Governments, employers and workers committed themselves to various kinds of events, with Government Ministers and other senior officials, Executive Heads of employers’ and workers’ organizations playing an active role. • There has been considerable enthusiasm for improving OSH, all of which served further to publicize the human and the economic costs of accidents and diseases at work.

  12. The World Congress on Safety and Health at Work, held in Orlando and Republic of Korea - another key promotional event for safety and health at work, organized every three years. • International Conference on Occupational Respiratory Diseases, in Beijing. This major meeting, has served as a forum for the exchange of technical and practical experience as well placing OSH higher on international and national agendas and attracting media attention. • Other similar events, such as APOSHO 22 Conference on Enhancing Occupational Safety & Health in Asia Pacific are equally key components of promotion and advocacy.

  13. The ILO also seeks to raise the visibility of its own instruments. Many Conventions on OSH and related topics, such as labor inspection, have been ratified in recent years. • Many member States have updated their legislation on OSH, strengthening their inspection systems, and developed national OSH programs and systems for carrying the programs into effect. • The ILO has also been actively supporting initiatives in some countries for developing national policies and programs.

  14. 2 Development of new instruments and related guidance

  15. The ILO Conference in 2003 called for the development of a new instrument establishing a promotional framework for OSH. • The three main components of the proposed Promotional Framework Convention ; • Promotion, ratification, adaptation into the national system and implementation of existing ILO instruments, that is Conventions, Recommendations and Codes of Practice and Guidelines; • Strengthening of the national occupational safety system: legal provisions, enforcement, compliance and labor inspection capacity and capability, at least basic occupational health services, knowledge management, information exchange, research, and support services. Such a system must be based on tripartite collaboration; • Establishing a national program and strategy, that has time-bound targets and indicators to continuously follow up and measure progress through selected indicators. It should be endorsed by highest possible authorities. A starting point for a program is a national profile, a review of the existing occupational safety and health situation. • New instruments on ergonomics and machinery safety.

  16. 3 Technical cooperation • The ILO Conference endorsed the importance of launching national OSH programs by the highest government authorities, for example by Heads of State or parliaments, to help place OSH at the tops of national agendas. • In order to ensure that national OSH issues are addressed at the policy level, the ILO has promoted the inclusion of OSH aspects in the National Plans of Action for Decent Work or Decent Work Country Programs in several countries. • Several projects have targeted the need to strengthen and modernize labor inspectorates, to ensure that they are technically competent and focus more on prevention. • Another important area has been the development and implementation of SOLVE, a training program addressing psychosocial problems at work, the subject areas of which are to better meet constituents’ needs such as nutrition, exercise, sleep, gambling, addition to new technologies and economic stress.

  17. 4 Knowledge development, management and dissemination • The ILO's International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS) continues to play a key role in the international exchange of OSH information through its own information products network of focal points and its support of ILO projects and experts in the field. • The ILO Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety has now been made freely accessible via the CIS website and also as hard copy in six languages (En/Fr/Sp/Ru/Chi/Jap). A new version of the Encyclopedia CD-ROM within the “SafeWork Bookshelf” also contains the English International Chemical Safety Cards.CIS's bibliographic database, which is a guide to world literature on OSH, was opened for free Internet access.

  18. 5 International Collaboration • One of the ILO’s most important partners in this context is the WHO, and the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health had discussed ways of reinforcing collaboration between the agencies on topics such as the promotion of integrated approaches to OSH, OSH management systems and priority fields for action in occupational health. • The Committee recommended that collaboration should focus on: • guidance and support for national OSH programs • enhancing regional collaboration and coordination 3) coordination and enhancement of information and educational programs and materials, • awareness-raising activities and instruments through campaigns, events and special days. • Development of national OSH programs, preparation of country OSH profiles, silicosis elimination, updating national lists of occupational diseases, ratification of OSH conventions, extending OSH services to agriculture, SMEs and informal sector.

  19. The International Program on Chemical Safety, The Inter-Organisation Program for the Sound Management of Chemicals International, collaboration to reduce exposure to asbestos as it is likely to remain the most dangerous single factor causing death and disease at work for decades to come. • The ILO also collaborates with the International Association of Labour Inspection (IALI) on promoting the global OSH strategy specifically targeting the construction sector and hazardous child labor. • Collaboration with other international agencies, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Maritime Organisation and the UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) continues in their respective fields.

  20. OSH IN MALAYSIA • SEJARAH:Peranan dan Perkembangan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerja



  23. JABATAN KESELAMATAN & KESIHATAN PEKERJA, KEM.SUMBER MANUSIA • Jabatan merupakan agensi kerajaan yang diberi tanggungjawab untuk mentadbir dan menguatkuasakan perundangan mengenai Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan (KKP) di negara ini. • Membentuk budaya kerja selamat dan sihat ke arah mempertingkatkan kualiti hidup semasa bekerja.

  24. Bertanggungjawabuntukmemastikankeselamatan, kesihatandankebajikanorang yang sedangbekerja, danmelindungiorang lain daripadabahaya-bahayakeselamatandankesihatan yang berpuncadaripadaaktivitipekerjaanpelbagaisektoriaitu: • Pengilangan • PerlombongandanPengkuarian • Pembinaan • Hotel danRestoran • Pertanian, PerhutanandanPerikanan • Pegangkutan, PenyimpanandanKomunikasi • PerkhidmatanAwamdanPihakBerkuasaBerkanun • Kemudahan - Gas, Elektrik, Air danPerkhidmatanKebersihan • Kewangan, Insuran, HartatanahdanPerkhidmatanPerniagaan • PerniagaanBorongdanRuncit

  25. FUNGSI JKKP • Menjalankan kajian, penyelidikan, pembangunan dan analisis teknikal ke atas isu-isu keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan yang wujud di tempat-tempat kerja. • Menguatkuasakan undang-undang berikut : • Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1994 dan peraturan-peraturan yang dibuat di bawahnya • Akta Kilang dan Jentera 1967 dan peraturan-peraturan yang dibuat di bawahnya. • Sebahagian daripada Akta Petroleum (Langkah-langkah Keselamatan) 1984 dan peraturan-peraturan yang dibuat di bawahnya.

  26. Menjalankan kajian dan analisis teknikal ke atas isu-isu keselamatan pekerjaan yang wujud di tempat-tempat kerja. • Menjalankan program-program galakan dan publisiti kepada majikan, pekerja dan orang awam untuk memupuk dan meningkatkan kesedaran mereka terhadap keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan. • Memberi khidmat nasihat dan maklumat kepada agensi-agensi kerajaan dan swasta berkaitan aspek-aspek pengurusan dan teknikal yang ada hubungkait dengan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan. • Menjadi urusetia untuk Majlis Negara Bagi Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan.

  27. DASAR KESELAMATAN DAN KESIHATAN PEKERJAAN • Untuk menyedia dan menyenggarakan suatu tempat dan sistem kerja yang selamat dan sihat; • Untuk mempastikan bahawa semua kakitangan adalah diberi maklumat, arahan, latihan dan penyeliaan berkenaan cara untuk menjalankan tugas dengan selamat dan tanpa risiko kepada kesihatan; • Untuk menyiasat semua kemalangan, penyakit, keracunan dan kejadian berbahaya dan mengambil langkah-langkah untuk mempastikan kejadian-kejadian tersebut tidak berulang lagi;

  28. Untuk mematuhi kehendak-kehendak perundangan dan lain-lain keperluan mengenai keselamatan dan kesihatan seperti yang ditetapkan di dalam Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1994, peraturan-peraturannya dan tataamalan yang diluluskan; • Untuk menyediakan kemudahan-kemudahan kebajikan bagi semua pekerja; dan • Untuk mengkaji semula dasar ini apabila perlu.

  29. KKP SELEPAS TAHUN 1994 • PerundanganbarukeselamatandanKesihatanPekerjaandibuatpadatahun 1994. • AktaKeselamatandanKesihatanPekerjaan 1994 (Akta 514) telahmendapatkelulusanparlimenpadatahun 1993 dandiwartakanpadaFebruari 1994. • PerundanganinidibuatmemandangkanAktaKilangdanJentera 1967 hanyameliputikeselamatandankesihatanpekerjaansektorperkilangan, perlombongandanpengkuariandanpembinaan yang manakeselamatandankesihatanpekerjadisektorindustri-industri lain tidakdiliputi. • Pekerja-pekerja yang terlibatdibawahAktaKilangdanJentera 1967 hanyalah 24% daripadajumlahtenagakerja • ManakalaAktaKeselamatandanKesihatanPekerjaan 1994 merangkumisejumlah 90% daripadatenagakerjadanhanyapengecualianpekerjaanataskapaldanangkatantentera.

  30. AktaKeselamatandanKesihatanPekerjaan 1994 inibertujuanuntukmemupukdanmenggalakkankesedarankeselamatandankesihatandikalanganpekerja. • Jugamewujudkanorganisasidanlangkah-langkahkeselamatandankesihatan yang berkesan. Inidilaksanakandibawah skim-skim pengaturankendiri yang disesuaikandenganindustriatauorganisasi yang berkaitan. • PeruntukanAktaKeselamatandanKeselamatanPekerjaan 1994 inimelengkapiperuntukanundang-undangsediaadadansekiranyaterdapatsebarangpercanggahan, AktaKeselamatandanKesihatanPekerjaan 1994 akanmengatasinya.

  31. Prinsip-prinsip utama yang diambil sebagai asas dalam penggubalan akta ini adalah seperti berikut: • Pertama - ‘Self regulation’ atau pengaturan kendiri yang bertujuan menangani perkra-perkara berkaitan dengan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan, pihak majikan perlu membangunkan satu sistem pengurusan yang baik dan kemas bermula dengan mengadakan satu polisi keselamatan dan kesihatan untuk pekerja-pekerjanya. Pihak majikan mengadakan satu perkiraan yang baik untuk dilaksanakan. • Kedua – Perundingan iaitu pihak majikan, pekerja dan kerajaan perlu berunding untuk menyelesaikan isu-isu dan masalah-masalah berkaitan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan di tempat-tempat kerja.

  32. Ketiga – Kerjasama iaitu pihak majikan dan pihak pekerja perlu bekerjasama untuk menjaga, memelihara dan meningkatkan mutu keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerja di tempat kerja. Dengan Akta Keselamatan mulai April 1994 Jabatan Kilang dan Jentera dikenali sebagai Jabatan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan (JKKP) dan pemeriksa dikenali sebagai Pegawai Keselamatan dan Keselamatan Pekerjaan.

  33. HAZARD & RISIKO • Risiko keselamatan dan kesihatan di tempat kerja, ialah kebarangkalian kecederaan berlaku dan impaknya kepada pekerja akibat hazard yang terdapat di tempat beliau bekerja. • Kebarangkalian adalah pengukuran frekuensi berlakunya kemalangan. Oleh kerana kebarangkalian berlakunya kemalangan dan impak kemalangan boleh dikawal, maka risiko boleh diurus sehingga ia boleh diminimumkan dan diterima.

  34. Hazard adalahapasahajasecarasendirianataubersalingtindakantarasatudengan lain mampumengakibatkankemudaratan. Kemudarataniniberbeza-bezaketenatannya, daripada yang mengakibatkankematiansehinggalahkepadakecederaankecil. • “Occupational Safety and Health Assessment Series 18002” (OHSAS 18002) dan ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999 mentakrifkan hazard sebagaipuncaataukeadaan yang mempunyaipotensimengakibatkankemudaratandalamkontekskecederaandanpenyakitkepadamanusia, kerosakanhartabenda, kerosakansekitarantempatkerja, ataugabungannya. • Bahankimia, sinaran, elektrik, biohazard, sistemkerjatidakselamatadalahbeberapacontoh hazard.

  35. Risiko: Menurut OHSAS 18002, risiko adalah gabungan kemungkinan (kebarangkalian) dan akibat sesuatu peristiwa berhazard berlaku. Risiko juga boleh ditakrifkan sebagai gabungan-gabungan faktor-faktor kebarangkalian berlakunya peristiwa malang, dedahan dan impak kemalangan tersebut. Kebarangkalian di sini bermaksud cansa kemalangan itu berlaku. • Bahaya: Bahaya lebih menerangkan dedahan relatif seseorang kepada hazard. Perkataan ini lebih bersifat perkataan yang menerangkan atau menunjukkan sesuatu keadaan risiko. Misalnya, seseorang yang sentiasa terdedah kepada hazard berada di dalam keadaan lebih berbahaya berbanding dengan seseorang yang tidak terdedah kepada hazard.

  36. SISTEM PENGURUSAN RISIKO KESELAMATAN DAN KESIHATAN PEKERJAAN • a) Mengenalpasti hazardb) Menilairisikoc) Mengawalrisikod) Mengukurpencapaian • Peringkatpertamamelibatkanprosesmengenalpasti hazard yang adaditempatkerjaataudidalamtugas. • Hazard yang telahdikenalpastidinilairisikonyasecarakuantitatifataukualitatifdanditentukansamadarisikotersebutbolehditerima, beradadidalam had terimaatausebaliknya. • Keputusanseterusnyaialahmengambillangkah-langkahmengawalrisikoberadaditahap yang baik, pencapaianpengurusanperludipantaudandiukur. • Maklumbalas yang diterimadaripengukuranpencapaiandigunakandisetiapperingkat system pengurusan agar segalaperubahankawalan yang lebihsesuaian.

  37. JENIS-JENIS HAZARD • (i) hazard fizikal(ii) hazard kimia(iii) hazard biologikal(iv) hazard ergonomik

  38. PUNCA-PUNCA UTAMA HAZARD • Terdapatduapuncautama hazard iaitu:a)Keadaanditempatkerja:i) ruang yang tidakmudahdanselesauntukbergerak ii) tidakdapatmembuatsatupemusinganbebasdikawasankerja. iii)lantai yang tidak rata danlicin iv) tiadatempatpenyimpananbahandanperalatan yang sempurna v) pencahayaandanpengudaraan yang tidaksempurna

  39. b) Pelakuanpekerja:i) tidakmelakukantatacarakerjadenganbetul, sempurna, selamatdanmejejaskankesihatan ii) tidakmemastikanalat-alat, mesindanbahanadalahselamatdandisimpandenganselamat iii) tidakmemastikancaramenyimpan, mengangkatataubekerjadenganbahanmerbahayadenganselamatdanmenjejaskankesihatan iv) tidakmengikutmaklumat, arahandanlatihan yang betul v) tidakberbincangdenganmajikan vi) tidakmembuatpemeriksaanditempatkerja

  40. KELENGKAPAN PELINDUNG PERIBADI • Kelengkapan Pelindungan Peribadi adalah kelengkapan yang diperlukan untuk memberikan perlindungan kepada pemakainya daripada hazard yang sedang ditangani. Antara contoh kelengkapan ini termasuklah baju kalis api, Apparatus Pernafasan Lengkap Sendiri, topi dan kasut keselamatan dan lain-lain.

  41. JAWATANKUASA KESELAMATAN DAN KESIHATAN PEKERJAAN • Seksyen 30 dan 31 AKKP, 1994: mewajibkan majikan di suatu tempat kerja yang mempunyai 40 orang pekerja atau lebih • atau jika di arah oleh Ketua Pengarah Jabatan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan untuk • menubuhkan Jawatankuasa Keselamatan dan Kesihatan di tempat kerjanya yang dianggotai oleh wakil pengurusan dan wakil pekerja.

  42. OBJEKTIF PENUBUHAN JKK • Membolehkanpihakpengurusandanpekerjamenilaidanmengambiltindakankeatasmasalahkeselamatandankesihatan yang wujud. • Memberikankesedarankepadapekerja-pekerjatentangpentingnyamematuhipolisikeselamatandankesihatan. • Menyalurkanpengetahuandanpelajaransertameningkatkanmotivasipekerja. • Sebagaialatkomunikasiberhubungbahayaataurisikoditempatkerjasertalangkahpencegahan.

  43. AGENSI-AGENSI TERLIBAT DI DALAM PERLAKSANAAN KESELAMATAN DAN KESIHATAN PEKERJAAN DI MALAYSIA • JKKP • PERKESO (Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial) • CIDB (Lembaga Pembangunan Industri Pembinaan) • NIOSH (Institut Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Negara)