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Resources Bellringers Chapter Presentation Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Image and Math Focus Bank
Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles Chapter B3 Table of Contents Section 1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Section 2 Amphibians Section 3 Reptiles
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Bellringer What are some of the physical characteristics shared by dinosaurs and people? Write your response in your science journal.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Objectives • List the four common body parts of chordates. • Describe the two main characteristics of vertebrates. • Explain the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm. • Describe four traits that fishes share. • Describe the three classes of living fishes, and give an example of each.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Chordates • Animals that have a backbone are calledvertebrates. • Vertebrates belong to the phylum chordata. • While vertebrates make up the largest group of chordates, some chordates, such as lancelets and tunicates, do not have a backbone. • The four particular body parts shared by chordates are illustrated on the next slide.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Vertebrate Characteristics • Fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals are vertebrates. • Vertebrates have a backbone which is a strong, flexible column of bones called vertebrae. • Vertebrates have a well-developed head protected by a skull. The skull can be made of either bone or cartilage.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Are Vertebrates Warm or Cold? • All vertebrates need to live at the proper temperature. Animals have different ways to keep their body at the right temperature. • Staying WarmAn Endotherm is an animal that can use heat from chemical reactions in the body’s cells to maintain a constant body temperature. • Birds and mammals are endotherms. These animals are sometimes called warmblooded.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Are Vertebrates Warm or Cold? continued • Cold Blood?An ectotherm is an organism that needs sources of heat outside of itself. Their body temperature changes as the temperature of the environment changes. • Nearly all amphibians, reptiles, and fishes are ectotherms. These animals are sometimes called coldblooded.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Fish Characteristics, continued • Making Sense of the WorldFishes have a brain that keeps track of information coming in from the senses. • Most fishes also have a lateral line system. The lateral line is a row or rows of tiny sense organs on the side of fishes that detect water vibration. • Underwater BreathingFishes use their gills to breathe. Agillis respiratory organ in which oxygen from the water is exchanged with carbon dioxide from the blood.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Fish Characteristics
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Lateral Line System Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Fish Characteristics, continued • Making More Fishes Most fishes reproduce by external reproduction. The female lays unfertilized eggs in the water, and the male drops sperm on them. • Some species of fishes have internal fertilization. The male deposits sperm inside the female. • Most females then lay eggs with embryos inside of them. In some species, the embryos develop inside the female.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Kinds of Fishes • There are five different classes of fishes. Two of these classes are now extinct. • The three classes of fishes that are still alive today are jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, and bony fishes.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Kinds of Fishes, continued • Jawless FishesThe two kinds of modern jawless fishes are hagfish and lampreys. • Hagfish and lampreys are eel-like. They have smooth slimy skin and a round, jawless mouth. • Jawless fish have a notocord but no backbone.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Kinds of Fishes, continued • Cartilaginous FishesIn most vertebrates, soft cartilage in the embryo is slowly replaced by bone. But in sharks, skates, and rays, the skeleton never changes to bone. So, they are called cartilaginous fishes. • Cartilaginous fishes have fully functional jaws. • Cartilaginous fishes store a lot of oil in their livers to help them float.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Kinds of Fishes, continued • Bony Fishes The largest class of fishes is the bony fishes. These fishes have a skeleton made of bone and a body made of bony scales. • Bony fishes have a swim bladder. A swim bladder is a gas-filled sac that is used to control buoyancy.
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Swim Bladder Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept
Section1 Fishes: The First Vertebrates Chapter B3 Kinds of Fishes, continued • There aretwo groups of bony fishes. Ray-finned fishes have pairs of fins supported by thin rays of bone. • Lobe-finned fishes have fins that are muscular and thick.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Bellringer Name an advantage and a disadvantage of the thin, moist skin of amphibians. Write your answers in your science journal.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Objectives • Explain how amphibians breathe. • Describe amphibian metamorphosis. • Describe the three groups of amphibians, and give an example of each. • Explain why amphibians are ecological indicators.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Moving to Land • Amphibians are animals that can live in water and have lungs and legs. • Alungis a saclike organ that takes oxygen from the air and delivers it to the blood. • Most of today’s amphibians are frogs or salamanders. • Fossils have been found of amphibians that looked very different––like a cross between a fish and salamander and up to 10 m long.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Characteristics of Amphibians • Amphibian means”double life.” Most amphibians live part of their lives in water and part of their lives on land. • Embryos must develop in water. The eggs do not have a shell or membrane that prevents water loss, so the eggs would dry up on land. Adults can live on land. • Amphibians are ecotherms. Staying in water helps them maintain a stable temperature and stops water loss.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Characteristics of Amphibians, continued • Thin SkinAmphibian skin is thin, smooth, and moist. The skin is so thin that amphibians absorb water through it instead of drinking. • Amphibians can also lose water through their skin and become dehydrated. Their thin skin is one reason amphibians live in water or damp habitats. • Amphibians can breathe by gulping air. Many also absorb oxygen through their skin.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Characteristics of Amphibians, continued • Leading a Double LifeMost amphibians change form as they grow. • Atadpoleis an immature frog or toad that must live in the water. They have gills and tails like fishes. • As a tadpole grows, it develops limbs and lungs and loses its tail and gills. • This change from an immature form to an adult form is calledmetamorphosis.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Kinds of Amphibians • CaeciliansCaecilians live in tropical areas of Asia, Africa, and South America. They look like earthworms or snakes, but they have the thin, moist skin of amphibians. • SalamandersAs adults, most salamanders live under stones and logs in the woods of North America. They have long tails and four strong legs. • Salamanders do not develop as tadpoles. But most do lose gills and grow lungs during development.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Kinds of Amphibians, continued • Frogs and Toads About 90% of all amphibians are frogs or toads. They live all over the world, except in very cold places. • Frogs and Toads are highly adapted for life on land. Adults have strong leg muscles for jumping • They have well-developed ears, vocal cords, and a long, sticky tongue.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Kinds of Amphibians, continued • Singing Frogs Frogs force air from their lungs over their vocal cords to make sound. • A thin-walled sac of skin called the vocal sac surrounds the vocal cords and increases the volume of the songs. • Frogs sing songs to communicate messages about attracting mates and marking territories.
Section2 Amphibians Chapter B3 Amphibians as Ecological Indicators • Unhealthy amphibians can be an early sign of changes in an environment. • Amphibians are ecological indicators because they are very sensitive to changes in the environment. Their thin skin absorbs any chemicals in the water or air.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Bellringer List three adjectives you associate with reptiles Record your list in in your science journal.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Objectives • Explainthe characteristics that allow reptiles to live on land. • Describe the characteristics of an amniotic egg. • Name the four groups of modern reptiles, and give an example of each.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Living on the Land • Reptiles have many characteristics that make them well suited for life on land. • Many reptiles are now extinct. Extinct species include dinosaurs, reptiles that could swim, others that could swim, and many that were similar to reptiles that are alive today.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Characteristics of Reptiles • Reptiles are well adapted for life on land. • Thick SkinReptiles have thick skin that forms a watertight layer that keeps cells from losing water. • Body TemperatureNearly all reptiles are ectotherms. They are active when it is warm outside, and they slow down when it is cool. They do not live in very cold environments.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Characteristics of Reptiles, continued • The Amazing Amniotic EggAn egg that holds fluid that protects the embryo is called anamniotic egg.Reptiles, birds, and mammals have amniotic eggs. • Reptiles eggs also have a shell. The shell protects the embryo and keeps the egg from drying out. • A reptile’s eggs can be laid under rocks, in the ground, or even in the desert.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Kinds of Reptiles • Turtles and TortoisesGenerally, tortoises live on land, and turtles spend all or much of their lives in the water. However, even sea turtles come on land to lay their eggs. • The trait that makes turtles and tortoises so unique is their shell. The shell gives them protection, but also makes them slow and inflexible.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Kinds of Reptiles, continued • Crocodiles and AlligatorsCrocodiles and alligators spend most of their time in the water. Because their eyes and nostrils are on the top of their flat heads, they can hide with most of their body under water.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Kinds of Reptiles, continued • Snakes and LizardsToday, the most common reptiles are snakes and lizards. • Snakes have many adaptations for hunting. They can “taste” if their prey is nearby. • Some snakes have venomous fangs for killing prey. Other snakes squeeze their prey until they suffocate it. • Snakes swallow their prey whole.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Kinds of Reptiles, continued • Most lizards eat small insect and worms, but some lizards eat plants. • Many lizards can break their tails off to escape predators and then regrow new tails.
Section3 Reptiles Chapter B3 Kinds of Reptiles, continued • TuatarasTuataras live on only a few islands off the coast of New Zealand. • Although they look similar to lizards, the two reptiles have some obvious differences. Tuataras do not have visible ear openings. • Unlike other reptiles, tuataras are most active when the temperature is low.
Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles Chapter B3 Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide.
Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles Chapter B3
Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles Chapter B3
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter B3 Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage.
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter B3 Passage 1Only a few kinds of fishes are endotherms. These fishes depend on their environment for most of their body heat but can heat parts of their bodies by internal cell activity. Because they can produce heat within their bodies, endothermic fishes can hunt for prey in extremely chilly water. As a result, they face limited competition with other fishes because few species of fishes can live in cold areas. Yet endothermic fishes pay a high price for their ability to inhabit very cold areas. Continued on the next slide
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter B3 Passage 1, continuedProducing heat by internal cell activity uses a lot of energy. For this reason, some fishes, such as swordfish, marlin, and sailfish, have adaptations that let the fishes heat only a few body parts. These fishes warm only their eyes and brain. Heating just these parts of the body uses less energy than heating the entire body does.
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter B3 1. In this passage, what does inhabit mean? Ato use energy in Bto live in Cto heat up D to eat in