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Catholic Counter-Reformation . Chapter 11. Many New Religious Orders. The Ursulines Religious order for women Established in 1535 Convents for religious education in France & Italy All social classes Became influential. Many New Religious Orders . Society of Jesus VERY IMPORTANT

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many new religious orders
Many New Religious Orders
  • The Ursulines
    • Religious order for women
    • Established in 1535
    • Convents for religious education in France & Italy
    • All social classes
    • Became influential
many new religious orders1
Many New Religious Orders
  • Society of Jesus
    • VERY IMPORTANT
    • Kagan: “…. Of various reform groups none was more instrumental in the success of the Counter Reformation…”
    • Founded by Ignatius of Loyola
many new religious orders2
Many New Religious Orders
  • Jesuits (cont’d)
    • Ignatius of Loyola was wounded in battle against French  read Christian classics during his period of healing. After reading of heroic self sacrifice he underwent a religious conversion and wanted to serve as a soldier of Christ
    • Spiritual Exercises were to build religious and moral self discipline by using mental/emotional exercises to gain mastery over one’s feelings
    • Their goal was uncompromising loyalty to the church in order to win back Protestant converts
council of trent
Council of Trent
  • 1545 – 1563
  • Popes resisted calling councils due to earlier Conciliar Movement
  • Trent is located in Northern Italy
  • The council spanned 4 papacies
  • Most of the work was completed by high ranking Italian church officials; the laity and lower clergy were not permitted to vote or share in decision making.
council of trent1
Council of Trent
  • Discipline reforms
    • Churches were to stop the sale of church offices
    • Bishops were forced to live in their diocese and preach regularly
    • Parish priests were to be neatly dressed, better educated, more active among parishioners
    • Priest preparation was enabled by the establishment of seminaries in every diocese.
council of trent2
Council of Trent
  • Doctrine Reforms
  • NONE!
    • Salvation through good works
    • Authority of tradition
    • 7 sacraments
    • Supported transubstantiation and no cup to the laity