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BOT-2 Fine Motor Assessment. By: Hannah Reed Holmes and Megan Holloway. Key Characteristics. Age: 4 - 21 years and 11 months old Domains: (Subtests) Fine Motor Precision D raw , cut, or fold within a specific boundary Fine Motor Integration

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bot 2 fine motor assessment

BOT-2 Fine Motor Assessment

By: Hannah Reed Holmes and Megan Holloway

key characteristics
Key Characteristics
  • Age: 4 - 21 years and 11 months old
  • Domains: (Subtests)
  • Fine Motor Precision
    • Draw, cut, or fold within a specific boundary
  • Fine Motor Integration
    • Reproduce drawings of geometrical shapes that range in complexity
    • Visual tracking with coordinated arm and hand movement
  • Manual Dexterity
    • Speed and Accuracy, timed
    • Reaching, grasping, and bimanual coordination with small objects
  • Upper-Limb Coordination
    • Measures visual tracking with coordinated arm and hand movement
    • Catching, dribbling, and throwing a tennis ball
key characteristics cont d
Key Characteristics cont’d
  • The purpose is to assess different measures of fine motor skill proficiency
    • Supporting Diagnosis of Motor Impairments
    • Screening
    • Making Placement Decisions
    • Developing and Evaluating Motor Training Programs
    • Assisting Clinicians and Researchers on Evaluation of Programs
testing procedures
Testing Procedures
  • Composite Form
    • Fine Manual Control
    • Manual Coordination
  • Select Subtests Form
      • Fine Motor Precision
      • Fine Motor Integration
      • Manual Dexterity
      • Upper Limb Coordination
testing procedures cont d
Testing Procedures cont’d
  • Administration Manual-Standardized
    • Examiner’s exact words in bold
    • Number of trials in box
    • Pictures of how performance should look
    • Number of times examiner can demonstrate item
    • Time Limit in box
examples of test items
Examples of Test Items
  • Fine Motor Precision
    • Filling in Shapes- Circle
    • Filling in the Shape- Star
  • Fine Motor Integration
    • Copying Circle
    • Copying Square
  • Manual Dexterity
    • Making dots in circles
    • Card Sort
  • Upper-Limb Coordination
    • Dropping and Catching a Ball- Both Hands
    • Dropping and Catching a Ball- One Hand
test development
Test Development
  • 1979 Original BOTMP created
    • BOTMP was separated into gross and fine motor.
  • BOT-2 was created to analyze more specific components of fine motor and gross motor.
    • Evaluation of both items were compared and certain testing items eliminated.
  • BOT-2 expanded coverage of fine and gross motor skills.
  • Improved measurement among 4 and 5 year olds.
  • Extended norms through age 21.
  • Improved item presentation.
  • Improved quality of kit equipment.
test standardization
Test Standardization
  • Standardization
    • Uniform procedures for administration & scoring
      • Rules, number of trails, and time limits
    • Scores are compared to age-based norms
      • n= 1,520 examinees
      • Ages 4 years of age to 21 years and 11 months of age
      • Based on the Current Population Survey (Bureau of the Census, 2001)
      • Standardized Populations: African American, Hispanic, White, & Other
    • Item Bias Review
      • Gender
      • Ethnicity
      • Socio-economic
psychometric properties cont d
Psychometric Properties cont’d
  • Test Content- When updating the BOT-2, only functional items that were proven to test its subtest title with moderately high factor were kept.
  • Criterion- Concurrent with 1-2 studies; demonstrates adequate agreement with a criterion or gold standard measure
  • Construct (Internal Structure)- The BOT-2 uses a composite structure that distinguishes fine motor skills on the basis of the limbs and musculature involved in object manipulation related to functional activities.
test length cost
Test Length/Cost
  • Fine Motor Composite Form:
    • 20-30 minutes to administer
    • 10 minutes needed to prepare the testing area
  • Fine Motor Short Form
    • 5-10 minutes to administer
    • 5 minutes needed to prepare the testing area
  • Cost of Fine Motor BOT-2 Kit $515.00
    • Kit includes Manual, Supplemental Manual, Administration Easel, Record Forms (25), Target, Shuttle Block, Balance Beam, Knee Pad.
  • Cost of Complete BOT-2 Kit $837
  • Recording Item Raw Score
  • Convert Raw Score to Point Score
  • Make Notes and Observation During Administration
  • Computing Subtest Total Point Scores
interpretation and results
Interpretation and Results
  • Gives a good baseline for strengths and weaknesses.
  • Can choose between subtests and use ones that apply the most.
  • When explaining to parents, first identify average to above average scores, then address the below average areas that can be improved with OT.
areas of occupation
Areas of Occupation
  • Education participation
    • The fine manual control subtest of the BOT-2 is particularly useful in screening for academic readiness in young children.
assessment approach environment
Assessment Approach/Environment
  • Assessment Approach:
    • Bottom up
      • Looks at components that are necessary for functional occupational performance during short activities (not specific occupations)
  • Environment:
    • Educational Setting
    • Rehabilitation center/Health Care Setting
    • Home
frame of reference measurement concerns
Frame of Reference / Measurement Concerns
  • Frame of References:
    • Motor Control and Motor Learning
    • Biomechanical and Rehabilitative
  • Measurement Concerns:
    • Examinee inattention with test length
    • Poor test environment
    • Inability to establish rapport
    • Examiner incompetency
    • Substitute for the standardized tools
    • Difficult to use with children who have disabilities
    • Test cost
  • Bruininks, R. H., & Bruininks, B. D. (2005). BOT2: Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency : manual (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, Minn.: Pearson Assessments.
  • Clinical Assessment. (n.d.). Home. Retrieved June 3, 2014, from