MINERALS. The building blocks of rocks….. Did any of you use minerals before coming to school this morning??? I sure hope so!!. All of these items used to build a house are made of minerals!. How Minerals Affect Your Life The Average American will use -. 30,415 pounds of salt
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MINERALS • The building blocks of rocks….. Did any of you use minerals before coming to school this morning??? I sure hope so!!
How Minerals Affect Your Life The Average American will use - • 30,415 pounds of salt • 1.7 million pounds of stone, sand and gravel • 83,890 gallons of petroleum • 42,581 pounds of iron ore • 1,078 pounds of lead **Total – 3.75 million pounds of minerals, metals and fuels in your lifetime!!
MINERALS = a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a particular crystalline structure (orderly arrangement of atoms)
1) Naturally occurring Formed in processes on or in the earth with no human input
2) Inorganic • Not made by living process *It has never been alive! Amber and sugar are not minerals because they formed from living things.
3) Definite chemical composition • All minerals are elements or compounds with definite chemical composition ex) mineral halite (NaCl) has a distinctive salty taste -Copper (Cu) - Beryl (Be3Al2Si6A18)
4) Crystal Structure • The atoms of the mineral are arranged in patterns that repeat over and over again. ex) Graphite versus Diamond
Uses of Minerals…. Ores - used for metals, extracted by mining (ex. iron) Gems – rare and beautiful, often used for jewelry
Now let’s master minerals!! What are some physical properties we know? Here are physical properties we will use to identify minerals:
Color • This is an easy clue, but it can be misleading. • Many different minerals have the same color and appearance… ex) pyrite and gold
Hardness • A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched. • Mohs Hardness Scale Diamond is the hardest mineral. On a scale from 1-10, diamond is a 10!
Luster • The way the mineral reflects light. • Either metallic or non-metallic. • Nonmetallic can be: Dull, Pearly, Silky, and Glassy
Streak • The color of the mineral in the powdered form. • Gold has a yellowish streak. Pyrite has a greenish-black streak.
Cleavage and Fracture • Cleavage – mineral that break along a smooth, flat surface (ex. Mica) • Not all minerals have cleavage… • Fracture – minerals that break with uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces (ex. Halite)
Other Properties: • Some minerals are magnetic. (Magnetite) • Some react with HCl (Calcite) • Salty Taste (Halite) - many minerals are poisonous, so DON’T TASTE THEM!! • Sulfur has a smell like rotten eggs.
Silicates Minerals that contain mostly silicon and oxygen are called silicates Si and O combine to form most of the minerals in Earth mantle and crust