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Jan 20-22: Social Justice and Economic Development DISCUSSED TUESDAY Putnam, Robert D. "The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life." The American Prospect, Vol. 4, No. 13, March 21, 1993, pp. 35-42.

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slide1

Jan 20-22: Social Justice and Economic Development

  • DISCUSSED TUESDAY
  • Putnam, Robert D. "The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life." The American Prospect, Vol. 4, No. 13, March 21, 1993, pp. 35-42.
  • Sen, Amartya Kumar. 1999. Development as freedom. 1st. ed. New York: Knopf. (Ch. 2).
  • (plus briefly on last week’s Mier and Fitzgerald and Leigh)
  • ------ DISCUSSED THURSDAY
  • Sugrue, Thomas J. 1998. The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton: Princeton Univ Press. (Ch 5)
  • Juzhong, Zhuang. 2008. Inclusive Growth toward a Harmonious Society in the People's Republic of China: Policy Implications. Asian Development Review 25 (1/2):22
  • And the debate over inner-city revitalization
  • Porter, Michael. "New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1997, pp. 11-27
  • Harrison, Bennett and Amy K. Glasmeier "Response: Why Business Alone Won't Redevelop the Inner City: A Friendly Critique of Michael Porter's Approach to Urban Revitalization." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1997, pp. 28-38.
  • Blair, John P., and Michael C. Carroll. 2007. Inner-city neighborhoods and metropolitan development. Economic Development Quarterly 21 (3):263-277.
  • see also: Savitch, H.V. et. al. “Ties that Bind: Central Cities, Suburbs, and the New Metropolitan Region” Economic Development Quarterly v. 7, n. 4 (Nov. 1993)
  • -> PLUS: short presentations/discussion of selected economic profiles (Assignment 1)
slide2

2004 Gini coefficients in selected

countries

Hungary: 0.244

Denmark: 0.247

Japan: 0.249

Sweden: 0.250

Germany: 0.283

India: 0.325

France: 0.327

Canada: 0.331

Australia: 0.352

UK: 0.360

Italy: 0.360

USA: 0.408

China: 0.447

Russia: 0.456

Guatemala: 0.483

Hong Kong: 0.500

Mexico: 0.546

Chile: 0.571

Namibia: 0.707

Source: United Nations Human

Development Report 2004

Range:

1: Maximum inequality

0: minimum inequality

Gini coefficients

United States

1970: 0.394

1980: 0.403

1990: 0.428

slide3

Lowest inequality

Highest inequality

slide5

Sen, Amartya Kumar. 1999. Development as freedom. 1st. ed. New York: Knopf. (Ch. 2)

Revisiting Sen…

It is mainly an attempt to see development as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. In this approach, expansion of freedom is viewed as both (I) the primary end and (2) the principal means of development. They can be called respectively the "constitutive role" and the "instrumental role" of freedom in development. The constitutive role of freedom relates to the importance of substantive freedom in enriching human life. The substantive freedoms include elementary capabilities like being able to avoid such deprivations as starvation, undernourishment, escapable morbidity and premature mortality, as well as the freedoms that are associated with being literate and numerate, enjoying political participation and uncensored speech and so on. In this constitutive perspective, development involves expansion of these and other basic freedoms. Development, in this view, is the process of expanding human freedoms, and the assessment of development has to be informed by this consideration.

slide6

Sen, Amartya Kumar. 1999. Development as freedom. 1st. ed. New York: Knopf. (Ch. 2)

Conclusion:

“…enhancement of human freedom is both the main object and the primary means of development. The objective of development relates to the valuation of the actual freedoms enjoyed by the people involved.” [p. 53]

“there is a need to develop and support a plurality of institutions, including democratic systems, legal mechanisms, market structures, educational and health provisions, media and other communication facilities and so on.”

slide7

Sen, Amartya Kumar. 1999. Development as freedom. 1st. ed. New York: Knopf. (Ch. 2)

“The ends and means of development call for placing the perspective of freedom at the center of the stage. The people have to be seen, in this perspective, as being actively involved-given the opportunity in shaping their own destiny, and not just as passive recipients of the fruits of cunning development programs. The state and the society have extensive roles in strengthening and safeguarding human capabilities. This is a supporting role, rather than one of ready-made delivery. The freedom-centered perspective on the ends and the means of development has some claim to our attention.”

slide8

Juzhong, Zhuang. 2008. Inclusive Growth toward a Harmonious Society in the People's Republic of China: Policy Implications. Asian Development Review 25 (1/2):22

slide11

For future policy choices, what is important for the PRC is to avoid (i) focusing only on economic growth while ignoring the inclusiveness of growth, and (ii) relying excessively on redistributive policies in order to achieve equalization of incomes. International experience has shown that neither of these policies is good for efficient and sustainable economic growth and development.

slide12

Sugrue, Thomas J. 1998. The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton: Princeton Univ Press. (Ch 5)

slide18

Blair, John P., and Michael C. Carroll. 2007. Inner-city neighborhoods and metropolitan development. Economic Development Quarterly 21 (3):263-277.

Rich region

Poor neighbor- hood

Just a problem of economic isolation (and thus

promote policies of integration with prosperous region?)

slide19

Rich region

“This study examines whether the poorest neighborhoods are economically integrated into metropolitan regions so that improvements in regional welfare also benefit poor neighborhoods.

This is an important topic. It is a component of the larger question: Does a rising tide lift all boats? Furthermore, regional development policies often imply that benefits from economic gains filter through metropolitan areas. Projects are often said to be “good for the entire community.”

However, if poor neighborhoods receive no direct benefits from regional programs and if they are excluded from economic networks that might create indirect benefits, other policies may be necessary to ensure that metropolitan growth is shared.”

Poor neighbor- hood

Rich region

Scenario A

Poor neighbor- hood

Scenario B

slide20

Rich region

Implications:

What are the mechanisms that allocate/distribute/transfer economic activity through the region? (e.g., linkages)

To what extent do these linkages pass through or bypass poor neighborhoods? (and aren’t they in part poor because they are poorly integrated economically in the first place?)

How do you measure these linkages?

What policies would build stronger linkages in these neighborhoods?

Poor neighbor- hood

Rich region

Poor neighbor- hood

slide22

Leaks fast

Leaks slowly

Arrow size =

Rate of in flows

Lots of money flows in

Arrow size =

Rate of leaking

Little money flows in

slide23

What slows leakages?

Protectionism? (plug the leaks)

or

well-developed local & regional networks that circulate money

(complicate the path of money from entering to exiting the bucket)?

slide24

Seven Explanations of Urban Poverty:

Human Capital and Behavioral Explanations

Direct Racial Discrimination

Spatial Mismatch Explanations

Selective Migration

Arrested Internal Development

Accommodations to Capitalism

Public Policies

slide26

Gunnar Myrdal (1898 – 1987)

“Spread and backwash effects”

spread

back wash

Starting conditions

slide27

Gunnar Myrdal (1898 – 1987)

“Spread and backwash effects”

spread

back wash

after the effects take place

slide28

Multiple-Regression analysis

  • Cases: MSAs, 40 with a population of 500,000 or more were selected.thepoorestcensus tracts in each of the 40 MSAs (metropolitan statistical areas) with a population of 500,000 or more. “The poorest tracts were defined as those tracts with the lowest median family incomes in 1990.”
  • Dependent variable: change in family median income in the poverty census tract between Census 1990 to Census 2000, CTCHANGE
  • Independent Variables: Two key independent variables served as global indicators of metropolitan economic prosperity:
  • the change in MSA family median income between Census 1990 and Census 2000 (MSACH)
  • the change in the MSA dependency rate (DEPDRTCH).
  • STARTING PREMISE: If the parameters for the key independent variables are positive, we conclude that change in the regional economy has had positive spread effects on the poor areas.
slide30

TM-P067. Percent of Persons Below the Poverty Level in 1999: 2000 Current Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data

slide31

Porter, Michael. "New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1997, pp. 11-27.

slide32
Michael Porter, "The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City" (Harvard Business Review, May-June 1995: 55-71).

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE (old anti-poverty programs)

addressed the problem indirectly

WHAT IS NEEDED:

strategies that address the problems directly.

(I.e., strategies that address the problem of the isolation of the inner-city economy.)

slide33

real disadvantages

  • 1. land assembly
  • 2. building costs
  • other costs (higher regulatory costs)
  • 4. government problems are obstacles (linkages payments, etc.) regulations, environmental liability, etc.

4 true advantages

1. strategic location LOCATION

2. local market demand (e.g., spending power per acre is still high, even if per capita is lower than elsewhere) DEMAND

3. integration with regional clusters (linkages) INTEGRATION

4. human resources. LABOR

slide37
"The best (and only) way to develop the economies of inner cities is to make them attractive and welcoming places in which to invest and do business, both for residents and nonresidents."
slide38

Harrison, Bennett and Amy K. Glasmeier"Response: Why Business Alone Won't Redevelop the Inner City: A Friendly Critique of Michael Porter's Approach to Urban Revitalization." Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1997, pp. 28-38.

slide39
Critique of Porter

http://www.csulb.edu/~odinthor/BusyBway.jpg

Sources: http://wtfrandom.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/grand-central_mkt.jpg