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Computing Systems. EC4012PA PIC 18F4520. Chapter 1. Introduction. What is a Computer?. Processor Input Devices Output Devices Memory Devices. Processor. A processor is also called the central processing unit (CPU) . The processor consists of at least the following 3 components:

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Computing Systems


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computing systems
Computing Systems

EC4012PA

PIC 18F4520

chapter 1
Chapter 1

Introduction

what is a computer
What is a Computer?
  • Processor
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
  • Memory Devices
processor
Processor
  • A processor is also called the central processing unit (CPU).
  • The processor consists of at least the following 3 components:
  • A register
  • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU).
  • Control unit.
microprocessor
Microprocessor
  • is a processor in a single ic chip
  • a microcomputer is a computer that uses a micro-processor as its CPU.
  • is referred to as 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, or 64-bit.
  • word length of the microprocessor.
microprocessor1
Microprocessor
  • is not designed to deal with I/O.
  • interface chips are needed.
  • External memory chips are needed to hold programs and data
  • Glue logic is required to interface with the memory chips,
  • Peripheral chips are needed to interface with I/0 devices.
what is a microcontroller
What is a Microcontroller ?

CPU

Timer/Counter

UART

ADC, DAC

DMA

I/O, Serial,

Parallel Ports

Memory

7

block diagram of a microcontroller

Address Bus

Memory

CPU

I/O

Clock

Block Diagram of a Microcontroller

ALU

Register

Control

Input Devices

Output Devices

RAM [Data]

ROM [Program]

Stack

Data Bus

Control Bus

common characteristics of microcontroller
Common characteristics of Microcontroller
  • “Embedded” inside the products we use everyday.
  • “Dedicated” to one task / one specific program
  • Designed for “low-cost, small, low-power performance”.
microcontroller is everywhere
Microcontroller is Everywhere
  • Consumer Market – includes home appliances:
    • washing machines,
    • TV remotes,
    • MP3 players,
    • VCR and refrigerator
microcontroller is everywhere1
Microcontroller is Everywhere
  • Automotive market
    • remote keyless entry,
    • antilock braking and
    • air bags
microcontroller is everywhere2
Microcontroller is Everywhere
  • Office automation
    • PCs,
    • keyboards,
    • mouse,
    • modem, sound card,
    • copiers, scanner and printers
microcontroller is everywhere3
Microcontroller is Everywhere
  • Telecommunications
    • cellular phones,
    • PSPs,
    • pagers and
    • answering machines
microcontroller is everywhere4
Microcontroller is Everywhere
  • Industrial products
    • door locks in hotel rooms,
    • battery chargers and
    • industrial machinery
memory
Memory
  • Programs and data are stored in memory in a computer.
  • A computer may contain:
      • semiconductor ;
      • magnetic (harddisk); and
      • optical (cdrom, DVD).
memory1
Memory
  • Semiconductor memory can be further classified into two major types:
    • random access memory (RAM) and
    • read-only memory (ROM).
slide18
RAM
  • Volatile - cannot retain data in the absence of power.
  • also called read write memory.
  • Reading memory is nondestructive.
  • Writes data will overwrite the old data.
slide19
RAM
  • Two types of RAM technology:
  • static RAM (SRAM) and
  • dynamic RAM (DRAM).
slide20
ROM
  • Read_Only memory is non-volatile , it retain data in the absence of power.
  • Data stored in these chips is either
    • unchangeable or
    • requires a special operation to change.