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Coal Crude Oil Naturel Bitumen Natural Gas Oil Shale Peat Nuclear Hydropower Peat Biomass Solar Energy Geothermal Energy Wind Energy Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal Marine Current Energy Hydrogen Coal gasification. Deniz Cinalioğlu 10-U.
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Renewable is the term used for forms of energy that can be regenerated, or renewed, in a relatively short amount of time. The regeneration process may be continuous andimmediate, as in the case of direct solar radiation, or it may take some hours, months or years. This is the case of wind energy (generated by the uneven heating of air masses), hydro energy (related to the sun-powered cycle of water evaporation and rain), biomass energy (stored in plants through photosynthesis), and the energy containedin marine currents. The energy contained in fossil fuels – coal, oil and natural gas – likewise comes also from the sun's energy, but it was stored in plants millions of years ago, and once used, it cannot be regenerated on a human time scale. They are examples of non renewable energy sources. The earth's remaining fossil fuel reserves can probably provide us with energy for another 100 to 500 years, but this is an insignificant amount of time in terms of the whole past history of human civilisation and of its future.
The result of the this compositioncreates problems morethan the problems of conventional petroleum with respect to exploitation, transportation, storage, and refining. This is the reason for the increased cost of extraction and processing and the physical limitations on production capacity.
Methods for Getting Energy from Biomass:
This process, usually using would produce a flammable gas mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and other non flammable by products. This is done by partially burning and partially cooking the biomass (using the heat from the limited burning) in the presence of charcoal (a natural by-product of burning biomass). The gas can be used instead of petrol and reduces the power output of the car by 40%. It is also possible that in the future this fuel could be a major source of energy for power stations.
If a specially formulated mixture of bacteria is added to biomass and water in a sealed container (so that no oxygen can enter it) the contents soon ferment. The product of this fermentation is mainly methane (a flamable gas which is the same as the gas you burn at home) which is an excellent fuel. This process removes biomass from dirty water and may be used in a water treatment plant.
If the biomass used is (or can be converted into) mostly sugar, then yeast can be added. The fermentation that follows produces alcohol which is a very high energy fuel that makes it very practicle for use in cars. This has been tried succesfully in Brazil.
The amount of solar radiation available at the Earth's surface is about 1kW thermal energy per square metre.
The idea of using large numbers of reflective panels called heliostats or multi-faced mirrors to concentrate solar radiation has an ancient history dating as far back as 212BC when Archimedes in ancient Syracuse is said to have used polished shields to focus light onto the sails of the Roman ships to burn them. Theoretically, by using mirrors and lenses, the temperature of the sun's surface can be reached.
While photovoltaic cells produce electricity directly, solar thermal technologies produce hot air, water and steam for industry. They can also provide energy to photolytically process fuels and chemicals and destroy dangerous materials.
There is enough energy for us to consume as much energy as we do now for the next 35 billion years. The only problem is getting to all this energy and converting it efficiently. It is estimated that at present we can only reach enough energy to supply the world's energy needs for one year. This is because of the limits of current geothermal technology and the disperse nature of the energy we can reach. Geothermal energy is currently cheaper than nuclear power and comparable to some conventional energy generation methods, geothermal power is ecenomic enough to warrant it's continued use and developement.
-hydrogasification (high temperature and pressure):
-catalytic”” increase of H₂:
-removal of CO₂, H₂:
desulfurisation (removal of impurities, H₂S)
H₂O(g) is removed and CH₄(g) is called synthetc natural gas. Advantages of coal gassification include the prevention of pollution by sulfur dioxide, but the process requires %30 of the energy content of coal for conversion!