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STRIKING: FROM BAM BAM TO JACK SNEAD By JOHN MEME
Defining Striking: • Striking skills are a conglomerate of movements occurring in a variety of planes and under varying circumstances.
1. Over arm (volleyball serve, tennis serve) 2. Sidearm (baseball swing, golf swing) 3. Underhand (badminton serve, volleyball serve, two hand bump, dig) 4. Kicking (soccer, football, rugby) 5. Heading (soccer) Types of Striking:
Implements Used For Striking: • Body Parts: Hands, Feet, Knees, Head, Elbows, and Hips • Equipment: Bats, Racquets, Sticks, Paddles, and Clubs
Basic Three Point Pattern In Striking • 1. Body Weight is shifted in the direction of the intended hit while shoulders and arms are coiled in the opposite direction. • 2. Hips and spine are rotated in rapid succession in the same direction as the weight shift. • 3. Arms(s) swing around forward in close succession with the rotatory movements. • * Each type of striking skill has it’s own body of detailed movements that fit around the basic three point pattern.
Additional Mechanical Principles Used in Striking • Additional linear and angular velocity may be gained by increasing distance over which force is applied (cocking of joints and back swing) • Forces applied in succession of each other must be applied at the point where the proceeding force has made it’s greatest contribution in imparting velocity. (un-cocking of joints in the rotating sequence) • Greater linear velocity is possible by increasing the the length of the lever used (extension of arms and un-cocking of wrists)
Striking or Swinging?? • Striking and Swinging are different. • Striking has criteria. • Abducted implement cocked in extreme lateral rotation (High deceleration of the cocking phase) • large acceleration of force, consisting of protracting of the main rotating joint (shoulder or hip) followed by secondary joint extension(elbow or knee) and possible wrist or ankle movement. • Swinging can be seen extremely early in childhood, but it lacks form and criteria.
Bam!! Bam!! Early Childhood Striking • Over arm striking is usually the earliest form exhibited by small children. • Usually the hand is used to strike an object (daddy/mommy) • If given an implement to use the child will make little or no modification to his/her pattern.
Early Childhood continued • The simplicity of the over arm pattern is consistent with the abilities of the young child whose reaction time, movement time, strength, balance, and perception, are limited. • The over arm pattern also allows the child to look directly at their target through the entire movement.
Early Childhood Concluded • This over arm pattern also limits the number of levers and total range of motion, thereby reducing the above stated physical demands. • When learning the more useful but more complicated side arm pattern, children will revert back to the over arm pattern if they feel unsuccessful. • This information pertains to children 18 months up to 6/7 years old???
Development of the Sidearm Swing • 20 months and up (Overlapping period) • Results From Halverson’s Study: • Progression from over arm to sidearm was slow in progression when assistance was not given. • When encouraged and coached, children progress significantly faster. (obviously)
Halverson’s Study Results cont’d • Motor skill progression (due to age, experience, and assistance) • arm action and limited spinal and pelvic rotation • weight shift, greater range of joint actions, and increased separation of rotary elements in pattern. • Forward step accompanied by “opening” • Lastly, a noticeable un-cocking of the wrists
Striking in the Oblique Plane • Study by Wickstrom gave students (30 students, 3 - 5 years of age) an opportunity to strike a stationary ball that was on the ground. They were also asked to hit the ball in a specific direction. • Responses were quite diverse • younger subjects hit on top of the ball • 1st progression was to bend at the waist and knees • 2nd progression was small step forward and then pushed a sidearm type swing
Oblique cont’d • 3rd progression by 4 year olds was the start of the swing was downward and sideward accompanied by a slight weight shift and rotation • Last progression noted was the un cocking of the wrists and follow through that kept bat in one plane of movement.
Summary of early Childhood Striking • Over arm striking is the first pattern to appear. Constant sight, limited action and physical limitations are sighted as the reasons. • Typically the form for the striking task is more effective than the performance.
Striking & Adolescence • Most students have some exposure to striking. Some more than others. • Adolescent changes greatly effect student’s ability to strike. Two of those changes are: • Rapid growth spurt (bones outgrow muscle - causes un-coordination) • Peer Pressure ( fear of failure / lack of self- confidence)
Teaching the Skill of Striking • Brief introduction with the students listing the components of striking (may need to illustrate while they name components) • Provide a wide variety of striking stations using as many different implements and different levels as possible. • Use step by step checklist for the key components
Be consistent with terminology as you monitor • Have students record the number of successful strikes • Have students provide the class with closure • Support your stations with appropriate striking games. (tennis baseball, box ball, softball, floor hockey, etc…) • Written quiz/test on steps
Adulthood Striking • Minimal changes occur on our own. • Changes in striking at this stage of life are attributed to: • Physical growth (increase in strength) • Coaching or lessons to fine tune striking pattern • Frequency and practice • As we age, if striking is not a part of our fitness activities, we lose some of the flexibility required to strike. Especially, when the speed of the object being struck is increased.
Lack of Research in Older • Professional Golf / Tennis are main two adult played sports that continue to discuss swing. Many metaphors used to get the same information across. • Reasons why striking diminishes: • Responsibilities • Time • Health • Available activities
For More Information On The Striking Unit Visit the Following Website • http://www.mindspring.com/~mcconnell
Summary • Striking is a skill that we usually begin to perform in early childhood. • Over arm striking is the first pattern used because of it’s simplicity. • Side arm striking is more complex but can be performed significantly better at an early age if introduced and/or coached. • Practice and guidance through adolescence can create a proficient striker. • Provide many opportunities with varying levels and implements to increase students’ ability to strike.
Young adults need to utilize coaches/ teachers to gain more insight on fine tuning striking patterns, • Frequency and practice are need to improve and maintain good striking habits. • Adults need to implement a proper warm-up, cool-down, and flexibility program to maintain striking patterns with low chance of injury.
The following pie chart illustrates the age overlap in striking skills.
REFERENCES • Mohnsen, Bonnie S., “Teaching Middle School Physical Education”. Human Kinetics.1997. • Barrett, Katie R.; Broer,Marion R.;McGee, Rosemary; and Lolas E. Halverson. “Physical Education for Children: A Focus on the Teaching Process”Kimpton Publishers.1977 • Barthels,Katherine M. and Kreighbaum, Ellen. “Biomechanics A Qualitative Approach for Studying Human Movement”.Simon & Schuster.1996 • Getchell, Nancy and Haywood, Kathleen M. “Life Span Motor Development”. Human Kinetics.1993. • Wickstrom, Ralph L. “Fundamental Motor Patterns”. Library of Congress. 1977.