MOTOR DEVELOPMENT…. • …..refers to growth in the ability of children to use their bodies and physical skills. • ………is continuous and sequential. • ………occurs from general to specific. • 2 Main Domains: • Gross motor skills - development of large muscles and the ability to move from place to place or do physical activities that involve the large muscles of the body, arms and legs. • Fine motor skills - development of small muscles and the ability to control use of the hands and feet, and do activities that involve the small muscles of the fingers, toes and other parts of the body. T
Given the envelope…. • You will have 3 different pieces of information: • Ages (ex. Birth -2) • Stages ( toddler, infant, etc.) • Descriptions/examples of large and small motor skills • Sort the contents and MATCH the age, stage and gross/fine motors skills.
INFANT PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Ages birth-2 GROSS MOTOR: • growth occurs first in a child's torso (trunk of the body). • Rolls from back to side or tummy • Sits alone • Reaches for a parent with arms • Crawls about on the floor • Pulls self to a sitting position • Pulls self up to stand next to a support (couch) • Stands alone with support • Takes steps alone with support, then without support • -Walks backward • Crawls up stairs with support FINE MOTOR: • Reaches for dangling objects or toys • Grasps object using palm and fingers • Passes a toy or object between hands • Puts objects in mouth to explore • Uses a pincer grasp (thumb and finger) to hold food or object • Grasps and uses toys to play or keep attention • Reaches for objects, such as a spoon to feed self
TODDLER PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Ages 2-3 • GROSS MOTOR: • Sits on or peddles a tricycle with support • Runs with few falls or trips • Walks up stairs while holding onto something • Jumps over small obstacles • FINE MOTOR: • Uses utensils to feed self • Brushes teeth with a toothbrush with help • Uses basic scissors for cutting • Holds and uses pencil or crayon for basic drawing • Snaps, buttons or zips with help T
PRESCHOOL PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 3 years – 5 years • GROSS MOTOR: • Runs with energy and coordination • Catches a ball with some practice • Throws a ball 5 to 15 feet with overhand motion • Walks up and down stairs alone • Hops on one foot • Rides a tricycle and steers well • FINE MOTOR: • Builds using blocks stacked on top of each other • Cuts paper in shapes • Draws with pencil, crayons, other implements • Turns pages of a book • Pours water from pitcher to cup T
ELEMENTARY AGED PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Ages 5-10 • GROSS MOTOR: • Changes clothes without help • Catches a ball bounced to them • Runs easily and participates in games of tag, etc. • Rides a bicycle with ability • Kicks a ball with ability • Carries out household tasks (cleaning room, making bed, etc.) FINE MOTOR: • Draws multiple shapes and figures with various implements • Strings beads for projects • Uses a comb, toothbrush, washcloth without support • Prints letters, numbers, etc. • Cuts shapes clearly, easily T
EARLY ADOLESCENCE & ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT – ages 11 -18 Puberty: • Beginning of adolescence coincides with beginning of puberty & end of adolescence coincides with beginning of adulthood. • Females typically enter puberty about two years earlier (between 11-14 years of age) than males (between 13-15 years of age). Rapid gains in height and weight. • Common to grow at a rate of 3-6 inches per year. • Average American child grows from about 53 inches (4 ft. 5 in.) at 10 years of age to about 66 (5 ft. 6 in.) inches by 18 years (end of growth spurt). ~ 13 inches! • Weight gain results from increased muscle development in boys and body fat in girls. • The average weight of children increases from about 67 pounds, at 10 years of age, to about 134 pounds, at 18 years of age. ( + 67 lbs.!) • Female maximum height & weight are reached by 18. • Males reach their peak height and weight after 20 years of age. T
EARLY ADOLESCENCE & ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT – ages 11 -18 Development of secondary sex characteristics. Changing hormonal levels play a role in activating the development of secondary sex characteristics. These include: • growth of pubic hair, underarm hair & facial hair (males only); • menarche (first menstrual period for girls) or spermarche ( first ejaculation for boys); • voice deepens due to growth of the male larynx muscles (males) • the increased production of oil, increased sweat gland activity, and the beginning of acne (both). • Breast & hip growth (females only).
How to Physical Changes in adolescence affect teenagers? • Not uncommon for teens to sleep longer. Need 9 hours for maximum mood & academic performance. • Teens may be more clumsy because of growth spurts – “awkward” in early adolescence. • Teenage girls may become overly sensitive about their weight. • Teens may be concerned because they are not physically developing at the same rate as their peers. • Teens may feel awkward about demonstrating affection to the opposite sex parent. • Teens may ask more direct questions about sex. • Due to increase in height, weight & muscle teens may gravitate toward sports. T
The M-O-V-E Formula for Physical Growth in Children at all Stages The principles of the M-O-V-E formula for assisting children with physical growth and development are as follows: • • Motivation = provide a reason to be active in & out of the classroom & at home…time together, learning, fun! • • Opportunity = to explore and interact physically…paper, crayons, clay, balls, bikes…space to play • • Variety = different materials and activities…many different interests! • • Equipment, encouragement and enthusiasm = something to climb on, push, pull and challenge their large and small muscles! • http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs633w.htm • http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/350/350-055/350-055.html#L3
Physical DevelopmentPicture Cube • Trace & cut out cube pattern or use a square box with 6 sides (tissue, etc.). • Each side will represent 1 “stage” of a child’s physical development. • Cube Title & name • Infancy - birth-2 • Toddler – 2-3 • Preschool – 4-5 • Elementary – 5-9 • Early adolescence / adolescence – 10-18 • Select & glue pictures from magazines that provide examples of a child’s physical growth & development at each stage. • You will need to label each side of the cube with the stage & provide examples of at least 2 large/gross motor skills & 2 fine/small motor skills (identify which they are).
Cognitive Development? • Continued brain development.Recent research suggests that teens' brains are not completely developed until late in adolescence. Specifically, studies suggest that the connections between neurons affecting emotional, physical and mental abilities are incomplete. (Strauch, 2003) This could explain why some teens seem to be inconsistent in controlling their emotions, impulses, and judgments.