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"Learning is like rowing upstream; not to advance is to drop back."—Chinese proverb
Traditional Fragmented Approach To Reading Each teacher creates their own reading program Some teachers create In –class Interventions No Schoolwide Intervention No system for individual solutions
Systems Approach to Reading Programs Core Reading Program Researched based core reading program for all students Strategic (In-Class) Interventions Data driven in- class interventions School Wide Interventions Schoolwide Intervention System for handling individual needs System for individual solutions
A professional parallel… Level I Annual Check-up; Standard treatment REGULAR physician; Screening data Level II Strategic, Supplemental Care Team working with regular physician; Diagnostic data Level III Intensive Care TEAM of doctors, nurses, technicians, etc.; Monitoring data Continuum of Time & Intensity & Data Collection Jan Hasbrouck,WSRI Executive Consultant T erry Leppien,OSPI Director of Reading Washington State K-12 Reading Model
3 Levels of Instruction Level I Core Instructional Level ALL Students Level II Strategic Instruction Approx. 20-30 % Level III Intensive Intervention Approximately 5-10% 53% 26% 21% Continuum of Time & Intensity & Data Collection Adapted from the 3-Level Reading Model UT Center for Reading & Language Arts
Reading Instruction Knowledge & Skill Student Mastery Prompts Corrective Feedback Independent Practice Teacher Student Modeling Student Efforts Explicit Student Participation Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner Eastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
Cumulative Effects of Intensity & Duration Grades K-5 Reading Block 7 2 0 d a y s 90 + minutes per day at instructional level Tacoma Reading Goal by 3rd grade Student Reading Proficiency Time Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner Eastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
Excellent 1st Instruction “The best intervention is effective instruction.” - National Research Council Each layer aims at preventing reading disabilities Each layer provides more intense & supportive intervention Layers of intervention respond to student needs Ruth Gumm & Sheryl TurnerEastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
Excellent 1st Instruction “The best intervention is effective instruction.” - National Research Council Whole group instruction - core reading program • Differentiated/ Strategic instruction • - small group rotations • - core & supplementary reading programs • - selected strategies and practices • Differentiated classroom intervention • - small, flexible group(s) • - supplemental & intervention programs Benchmark testing of students is conducted at least three times a year to determine instructional needs. Ruth Gumm & Sheryl TurnerEastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
Myths About Reading No phonics after 1st grade??? Reading is a natural process Give them time and they’ll catch up Volunteers Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research
Assessment Level I Screening data • Benchmark assessment (3x per year) • Monitor progress (in-program assessments, unit tests, daily performance) Level II Diagnostic data Benchmark assessment (3x per year) • Diagnostic tests • Progress monitoring (at least 2x monthly) & Level III Monitoring data Benchmark assessment (3x per year) • Diagnostic tests • Progress monitoring (weekly is optimal) Continuum of Data Collection
Progress Monitoring • Students scoring in the Low Risk category on a subtest are likely to achieve the end of the year benchmark. • Students scoring in the Some Risk category on a subtest may have limited skills in that area. These students will need strategic instruction in order to reach the end of the year benchmark. • This may include small group instruction within the classroom, double dosing, and/or small group interventions. • Students scoring in the At Risk category on a subtest are at risk for difficulty in that area. These students will need intensive intervention in order to reach the end of the year benchmark.
Classroom Data Activity • At your grade level table, highlight your class DIBELS data by subtest. • Use pink to highlight At Risk/Deficit scores in your classroom. • Use yellow to highlight Some Risk/Emerging scores in your classroom. • Use green to highlight Low Risk/Established scores in your classroom.
Intervention Activity • Add student names to the Data Analysis Worksheet. • This will be what we use to help make intervention decisions. • At your tables, talk about what the data is showing with regards to the interventions needed for your students. • Now, transfer this information to the Intervention Planning sheet.
Progress Monitoring • PM done monthly for students who are Low Risk. • This is done at the student’s grade level • PM done twice a month for Some Risk and At Risk students. • At the student’s instructional level • Not all DIBELS subtests have PM assessments • Other curriculum based materials can be used.
The Who, Where, & When • PM will be completed by the 90 minute block teacher for At Risk & Some Risk students. • this would help W2R teachers make instructional decisions based on the data • Low Risk students can be monitored monthly either by the reading teacher or the homeroom teacher. • Regardless of who does the PM sharing information is vital.
Progress Monitoring Nuts & Bolts • Passages available on line and on disk • Focus on accelerate above the aim line. • Check specific guidelines to determine the students instructional level for PM placement
Interventions should be organized in levels • Aimed at preventing reading difficulties • Each level provides more intensive and supportive intervention • Layers of intervention responds to student needs Level I CORE Level II Strategic Level III Intensive
Level I: Core class instruction Level I CORE Core reading program Benchmark Testing Ongoing professional development
What if students are not being successful in Level I? • Full 90 minutes at instructional level • 5 components • Explicit , systematic instruction • Repetition and pacing of skills • Independent time • Monitoring and Adjusting
Level II: Supplemental instruction Level II Strategic Programs, strategies, and procedures designed and employed to supplement, enhance, and support Level I.
Instructional features for interventions Interventions are more effective when they: Focus systematic and explicit instruction on deficient skills Increase the intensity of instruction Provide opportunities for guided practice of new skills Provide systematic cueing of appropriate strategies in context Scaffold learning to apply new skills Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research
Level III: Intensive intervention • Intensive, strategic, supplemental instruction • Designed and customized small-group or 1:1 • Occurs during 90 minuteinstructional block and beyond Level III Intensive
"There is little evidence that children experiencing difficulties learning to read, even those with identifiable learning disabilities, need radically different sorts of supports than children at low risk, although they may need much more intensive support" (Snow, Burns, Griffin, pg 3, 1998)
We know that interventions have tended to stabilizethe relative deficit in reading skill rather than remediateit. Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research
What do struggling readers need to work on? (NRC Report, 1998) Shefelbine (2001)
An Example of a Continuum of Interventions Supplementary Materials Plus Double Dose Small group pull aside during CORE to work on specific skills Before or after school instruction S T R AT EGIC I N T E N S I V E C O R E 90 minutes 5 components Explicit , systematic instruction Repetition and pacing of skills 1:1 Intensive instruction with a a specialized instructor Double Dose Increasing in intensity
Activity Vignette #1 In September of 3rd grade, Joe read 65 WCPM on the DIBELS benchmark . Is further Diagnostic testing needed to plan instruction? YES NO Vignette #2 In January of 1st grade, Jane scored 14 on PSF, 28 on NWF and a 7 on her ORF benchmarks. What skills will be tested? Place in instructional level reading group and monitor progress. Vignette #3 In September of 5rth grade, Tim read 70 WCPM on the DIBELS benchmark . What is the plan for intervention and progress monitoring schedule? Place in instructional and intervention program.
The Big Ideas for Preventing Reading Failure • Increase the quality and consistency of instruction in every classroom • Conduct timely and valid assessments of reading growth to identify struggling readers • Provide more intensive interventions to “catch up” the struggling readers Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research