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Transformational and Charismatic Leadership. Inspirational Leadership.

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inspirational leadership
Inspirational Leadership

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure…The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government: of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

  • Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863 (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettysburg_Address)
the paradigm shift
The Paradigm Shift
  • Leadership is a process of influencing others’ behavior through motivation.
  • Classic leadership literature
    • Leaders direct & support subordinates
    • Recommended style depends on situation
    • May or may not be able to change leaders’ styles
    • Arguably trivial research
  • How else do leaders influence followers (other than support and direction)?
transformational charismatic leadership overview
Transformational & Charismatic Leadership Overview
  • Emotional, inspirational, and symbolic aspects of leadership
    • Transformational Leadership
    • Charismatic Leadership
    • Attribution Processes in Charismatic Leadership
transformational leadership burns 1978
Leaders can…

Change followers’ motivation from self-interest to group goals

Encourage followers to pursue higher order needs

Create a sense of purpose, commitment, meaning.

Transformational Leadership(Burns, 1978)
  • And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. 
    • --JFK Inaugural (Jan. 21, 1961)

Image: http://swimanog.wordpress.com/category/blogroll/

transformational leadership
Transformational Leadership
  • Bass (1985)
    • Operational definition of inspirational leadership
    • Distinguished transformational & transactional leadership.
    • Described traits and behaviors associated with transformational leadership.
    • Assumed that most people are capable of transformational leadership.
transactional leadership e g bass 1985 bono judge 2004
Transactional Leadership*(e.g., Bass, 1985; Bono & Judge, 2004)
  • Contingent reward
    • Provide support and resources in exchange for effort/performance.
  • Active management by exception
    • Monitoring performance, take corrective action as necessary.
  • Passive management by exception
    • Take action only when problems become serious.
  • Laissez-faire leadership
    • Avoid leadership responsibilities.

*Not all transactional leadership is “bad” leadership

transformational leader behaviors rafferty griffin 2004
Transformational Leader Behaviors (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004)

Transformational

Leadership

Behaviors

  • Personal
  • Recognition
  • Articulating a vision of the future
  • Inspirational communication
  • Intellectual
  • stimulation
  • Supportive
  • leadership
transformational leader behaviors rafferty griffin 20041
Transformational Leader Behaviors (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004)
  • Supportive leadership
        • Expressing concern for followers and taking their needs into account
        • Individualized consideration
  • Considers my personal feelings before acting
  • Behaves in a manner which is thoughtful of my personal needs
transformational leader behaviors rafferty griffin 20042
Transformational Leader Behaviors (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004)
  • Personal Recognition
    • Recognizing contributions
    • Praising effort
  • Acknowledges improvement in my quality of work
  • Personally compliments me when I do outstanding work
transformational leader behaviors rafferty griffin 20043
Transformational Leader Behaviors (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004)
  • Intellectual Stimulation
    • Cause employees to question beliefs/assumptions, look at problems in new ways, and find innovative solutions.
  • Challenges me to think about old problems in new ways.
  • Has ideas that have forced me to rethink some things that I have never questioned before.
transformational leader behaviors rafferty griffin 20044
Transformational Leader Behaviors (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004)
  • Articulating vision of the future
    • “Big Hairy Audacious Goal”
    • Expressing an idealized picture of the future based on organizational values
  • Has a clear understanding of where we are going
  • Has a clear sense of where he/she wants our unit to be in 5 years

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

transformational leader behaviors rafferty griffin 20045
Transformational Leader Behaviors (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004)
  • Inspirational communication
    • Use of appeals and emotion-laden statements to arouse followers emotions and motivation
    • The expression of positive and encouraging messages about the organization, and statements that build motivation and confidence.
  • Says things that make employees proud to be a part of this organization.
  • Encourages people to see changing environments as situations full of opportunities.

Any Given Sunday

transformational leadership and leader effectiveness
Transformational Leadership and Leader Effectiveness*

*Judge, T.A. & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 89 755-768.

transform yourself
Transform yourself!
  • Articulate a future vision:
    • Express an idealized picture of the future based on YOUR values
  • Inspirational communication: Write positive messages about YOU.
    • Builds motivation
  • Support your circle: Express concern for your close friends,
    • Takes their needs into account, and they’ll do what they can to return the favor.
  • Intellectual stimulation: Put yourself in situations which force you to think about problems in new ways
    • Travel!
  • Individual consideration: Reward yourself for achieving specific goals.
    • Skydiving??
charismatic leadership conger kanungo 1987
Charismatic Leadership (Conger & Kanungo, 1987)

Biblical history

Charisma = divinely inspired/possessing a gift from god

Charismatic authority (e.g., Weber, 1947)

Derived from devotion to sanctity, heroism, exemplary character, not rules, positions, or traditions

charismatic leadership conger kanungo 19871
Charismatic Leadership(Conger & Kanungo, 1987)
  • Charismatic Leaders
    • “…by the force of their personal abilities are capable of having profound and extraordinary effects on followers" (House & Baetz, 1979, p. 399).
charismatic leadership conger kanungo 19872
Charismatic Leadership(Conger & Kanungo, 1987)
  • Charismatic authority requires:
    • A uniquely gifted person
    • A social crisis
    • A set of ideas providing a radical solution
    • A set of followers who are attached to the person & believe she/he is linked to transcendent powers
    • Validation of the leader’s abilities through extraordinary success
personality transformational leadership bono judge 2004
Personality & Transformational Leadership (Bono & Judge, 2004)

Composite Transformational Leadership

Neuroticism r = -.17*

Extroversion r = .24*

Openness r = .15*

Agreeableness r = .14*

Conscientiousness r = .13*

* 95% confidence interval did not include .00

the dark side of charismatic leadership
The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership
  • Charismatic leaders may ignore information that doesn’t fit their vision.
    • Charismatic leaders can persuade followers to adopt a destructive path
the dark side of charismatic leadership1
The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership
  • Followers of charismatic leaders may be inflexible, unable to respond to change
  • Charismatic leaders may only seek self-glorifying, highly visible projects.
  • Charismatic leaders may struggle to implement their vision.
  • Charismatic leaders often fail to develop competent successors
social dynamics of charismatic leadership
In Crises…

Groups demand action.

Directive leaders assert themselves.

Followers are more pliable.

Leaders are viewed more favorably.

Social Dynamics of Charismatic Leadership
social dynamics of charismatic leadership1
Social Dynamics of Charismatic Leadership
  • Leaders may manufacture crises to promote an agenda
    • Organizational change initiatives
    • Mass layoff announcements & stock price manipulations
    • Labor negotiations (e.g., in sports)
    • We/they leadership (create an enemy)
was jack welch successful as ceo of general electric1
Was Jack Welch Successful as CEO of General Electric?

In a May 2006 article for Stanford Business Magazine, the management professors Robert Sutton and Jeffrey Pfeffer recount a conversation with Spencer Clark, a high-ranking General Electric executive during the Welch years. “Jack did a good job,” Clark said, “but everyone seems to forget that the company had been around for over 100 years before he ever took the job, and he had 70,000 other people to help him…anyone could have run GE and done well.” Warming to his theme, he added, “Not only could anyone have run GE in the 1990s, [a] dog could have run GE. A German shepherd could have run GE.”

Collingwood (2009). Do CEOs Matter? The Atlantic Monthly.

http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200906/steve-jobs

charisma as an attribution conger kanungo 1987
Attribution theory

Beliefs about reasons for others’ behavior

Charismatic leadership may be an attribution made by followers rather than a personal quality of the leader

Rudy Guiliani post 9/11

Charisma as an Attribution (Conger & Kanungo, 1987)
charisma as an attribution conger kanungo 19871
Charisma as an Attribution (Conger & Kanungo, 1987)
  • Followers attribute charisma to leaders who solve a crisis
  • People are more likely to see leader as charismatic when:
    • Behavior is unusual/distinctive.
    • The person is unfamiliar.
    • The situation is unfamiliar.
charisma as an attribution conger kanungo 19872
Charisma as an Attribution (Conger & Kanungo, 1987)
  • Behaviors likely to be attributed to charisma
    • Unconventional behavior
    • Articulating an idealized vision of a future state
    • Heroic behavior, worthy of imitation; identification
    • Taking personal risks to succeed
    • Coming up with a solution to a crisis
critique of transformational leadership yukl 1999
Critique of Transformational Leadership(Yukl, 1999)
  • Process of influence is unclear.
    • Positive emotional contagion
    • Shared meaning/purpose
    • Personal identification with leader’s goals
    • Satisfaction
    • Motivational orientation

Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weakness in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 285-385.

critique of transformational leadership yukl 19991
Critique of Transformational Leadership(Yukl, 1999)
  • Missing relevant behaviors.
    • Upward advocacy
    • Misinterpreting events
    • Exaggerating achievements
    • Using staged events

Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weakness in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 285-385.

critique of transformational leadership yukl 19992
Critique of Transformational Leadership(Yukl, 1999)
  • Ambiguity about situational conditions
    • Are crises necessary?
    • Are TF leaders heros?
    • Do followers need to be insecure?

Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weakness in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 285-385.

how would you critically evaluate the transformational charismatic leadership literature

How would you critically evaluate the transformational/charismatic leadership literature?

full range leadership model
Full-range Leadership Model

Transformational

Leadership

Transactional

Leadership

Laissez Faire’

Leadership