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Unit 2 Fire, Knots, Shelter

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Unit 2 Fire, Knots, Shelter. Campfire. Environmental Considerations. Ample supply of dead wood. Location for a fire. Permitted by law. Naturally replenished within a reasonable time if you have to cut wood. Don’t use high impact area. Leave no trace. Functions of Fires.

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environmental considerations
Environmental Considerations
  • Ample supply of dead wood.
  • Location for a fire.
  • Permitted by law.
  • Naturally replenished within a reasonable time if you have to cut wood.
  • Don’t use high impact area.
  • Leave no trace.
functions of fires
Functions of Fires
  • Heat for emergency warmth and drying.
  • Food preparation.
  • Aesthetic/psychological appeal.
  • Litter; leaves, twigs and other natural organic matter.
  • Duff; Decomposing litter.
  • Mineral soil; made up of sand, gravel, and stones
safety considerations
Safety Considerations
  • Safe location
  • Wind direction
  • Never leave a fire unattended!
  • Safe distance from tents and other equipment.
  • Away from combustible materials (roots, grasses, trees , duff, fuel)
  • Available water
  • Weather conditions (dry)
fire site types
Fire site types

Fire pits

Fire rings

Fire pan

Mound or pedestal

site restoration
Site Restoration
  • Ensure fire is completely out.
  • Burn the wood to ash.
  • Distribute ashes and rocks.
  • If mound fire was used, replace the mineral soil to its original location
  • Fuel: Wood provides the fuel in campfires. The key is to have the correct size fuel for the amount of heat available.
  • Heat: Heat ignites the fuel and must be balanced with it.
  • Oxygen: there must be room for oxygen. Allow for ample air circulation and arrange the fuel so that oxygen can get to the fire.
selection of firewood
Selection of firewood
  • Softwood (eg. Pine, spruce and cedar) are convenient for use as tinder and kindling. They ignite readily and burn hot.
  • Hardwood (eg. Maple, yellow birch, beach) are excellent for obtaining hot long lasting coals, providing a steady temperature for cooking and baking.




Yellow birch


materials in fire construction
Materials in Fire construction
  • Tinder; Fine, flammable material which will ignite from the heat of a match.
  • Kindling; Small diameter branches (3/4” or less) or split wood which will ignite from the tinder
  • Fuel; Firewood which provides coals and uniform heat for cooking.
laying the fire
Laying the fire
  • Lean-to
  • Tepee
  • Log cabin/pyramid
ignition methods
Ignition methods.
  • Friction
  • Sun
  • Match
  • Fuel lighter
  • Flint & Steel
Hand drill


  • Bow drill



knot tying
Knot Tying
  • Figure 8-provides a quick and convenient stopper knot to prevent a line sliding out of sight, e.g., up inside the mast. Its virtue is that, even after it has been jammed tightly against a block, it doesn't bind; it can be undone easily.
  • Half hitch-to “hitch” or tie a rope to a standing object.
  • Sheet Bend-is recommended for joining two ropes of unequal size. The thicker rope must be used for the simple bight as shown. It works equally well if the ropes are of the same size.
  • Bowline-makes a reasonably secure loop in the end of a piece of rope. It has many uses, e.g., to fasten a mooring line to a ring or a post. Under load, it does not slip or bind. With no load it can be untied easily. Two bowlines can be linked together to join two ropes.
knot tying1
Knot Tying


things to consider before building
Things to consider before building.
  • Present wind direction
  • Prevailing winds for time of year
  • Opening orientation North South East West
  • Soil type and compaction (driving pegs and poles)
  • Level of ground
  • Low or high area
  • Wet or dry
  • How many people it will sleep