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COLLECTION OF DATA. CHAPTER ---2. INTRODUCTION.

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COLLECTION OF DATA

### CHAPTER ---2

INTRODUCTION

Data collection, is in fact, the most important aspect of a statistical survey. Qualitative aspects like intelligence, honesty, good, or bad has no significance in statistics until and unless these are assigned some figures. Qualitative aspects when expressed numerically can be studied in statistics.

METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA

----PRIMARY DATA

----SECONDARY DATA

PRIMARY DATA

Data collected by the investigator for his own purpose, for the first time, from beginning to end, is called primary data. It is collected from the source of origin.

In the Words of WESSEL “Data originally collected in the process of investigation are known as primary data.”

Primary data are original.

SECONDARY DATA

“Secondary data are those which are already in existence, and which have been collected, for some other purpose than the answering of the question in hand.”

According to Wessel,” Data collected by other persons are called secondary data.”

These data are therefore, called second – hand data.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA
• Difference in originality
• Difference in the Suitability of Objectives
• Difference in Cost of Collection
METHODS OF COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA
• DIRECT PERSONAL INVESTIGATION
• INDIRECT ORAL INVESTIGATION
• INFORMATION FROM CORRESPONDENTS
• MAILED QUESTIONNAIRE METHODS
• SCHEDULES SENT THROUGH ENUMERATORS
DIRECT PERSONAL INVESTIGATION

In this method, data are collected personally by the investigator. There is a face-to-face contact with the persons from whom the information is to be obtained.

MERITS / DEMERITS

MERITS.

• Originality
• Accuracy
• Reliable
• Other information
• Uniformity
• Flexible

DEMERITS

• Not Proper for Wide Areas
• Personal Bias
• Costly
• Wrong Conclusion
INDIRECT ORAL INVESTIGATION

In the method , the investigator obtains the information not from those persons for whom the information is needed. Information is collected orally from other persons who are expected to possess the necessary information.

MERITS / DEMERITS

MERITS.

• Wider Area
• Less Costly
• Expert opinion
• Free from Bias
• Simple

DEMERITS

• Less Accurate
• Biased
• Wrong Conclusion
INFORMATION FROM CORRESPONDENTS

In this method, the investigator appoints local agents or correspondents in different places to collect information. These correspondents collect the information in their own way and send the same to the central office where the data are processed

MERITS / DEMERITS

MERITS.

• Economic
• Wide Coverage
• Continuity
• Suitable for Special Purpose

DEMERITS

• Less Originality
• Lack of Uniformity
• Personal bias
• Less accurate
• Delay in Collection
MAILED QUESTIONNAIRE METHODS

In this method, a list of questions ( known as questionnaire) relating to the survey is prepared and sent to the informants by post. The questionnaire contains and provides space for answers.

MERITS / DEMERITS

MERITS.

• Economical
• Originality
• Wider area

DEMERITS

• Lack of Interest
• Lack of Flexibility
• Limited Use
• Biased
• Less Accuracy
SCHEDULES SENT THROUGH ENUMERATORS

In this method, a questionnaire is prepared as per the purpose of enquiry. The enumerator himself approaches the informant with the questionnaire. The questionnaires which are filled by the enumerators themselves by putting questions are called schedules.

MERITS / DEMERITS

MERITS.

1. Wide Coverage

• Accuracy
• Personal Contact
• Impartiality
• Complete

DEMERITS

• Expensive
• Difficulties regarding Enumerators
• Time Consuming
• Not Suitable for Private Investigation
• Inaccurate Data
ESSENTIALS/QUALITIES OF A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE
• Limited number of Questions
• Simplicity
• Proper Order of the Questions
• No Undesirable Questions
• Less Chances of Partially
• Calculation
• Pre-testing
• Instructions
• Cross Verification
• Request for Return
METHODS/SOURCES OF SECONDING DATA

(I) PUBLISHED SOURCES

(II) UNPUBLISHED SOURCES

PUBLISHED SOURCES

Some of the published sources of secondary data are:

• Government Publications
• Semi-Government Publications
• Reports of Committees and Commissions
• Publications of Trade Association
• Publications of Research Institutions
• Journals and Papers
• Publications of Research Scholars
• International Publications
UNPUBLISHED SOURCES

There are some unpublished sources as well. These data are collected by the government organisations and others, generally for their self use or office record. These data are not published.

PRECAUTIONS IN THE USE OF SECONDARY DATA
• Ability of the Collecting Organisation
• Objective and Scope
• Method of Collection
• Time and Conditions of Collection
• Definition of the Unit
• Accuracy