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Status. DSL OSN kernel + FAITH + ProtoGENI The Social Computing Service Layer Social Search Engine SOaaS (Social Computing as a Service) Mapping into Cloud Computing Social Applications SoEmail , MinB , Calendar, Chat-Room, Games Social-Enabled Networking

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status
Status
  • DSL OSN kernel + FAITH + ProtoGENI
    • The Social Computing Service Layer
    • Social Search Engine
    • SOaaS (Social Computing as a Service)
    • Mapping into Cloud Computing
  • Social Applications
    • SoEmail, MinB, Calendar, Chat-Room, Games
  • Social-Enabled Networking
    • FIND (Content-Centric Networking, e.g.)
    • How will the L-3 routers leverage the SOaaS?
    • New Network Layer Algorithms/Architecture

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide2

“Future” Applications

Online Social Computing/Networking

Service Infrastructure

Bridging the

between end users and the network!

FIND

Internet

Network Virtualization

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

social control layer
“Social Control Layer”

Application Entity

Application Entity

Network Route Selection

Social

Entity

Social

Entity

Dualism

AL-BGP

Network Entity

Network Entity

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

d avis s ocial l inks find f acebook based in ternet d esign

Davis Social LinksFIND:Facebook-based INternet Design

S. Felix Wu

Computer Science Department

University of California, Davis

wu@cs.ucdavis.edu

http://www.facebook.com/sfelixwu

http://dsl.cs.ucdavis.edu

future internet design
Future Internet Design
  • We only know a little bit about what we don’t want.
  • We really need to know the requirements of the future!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

future internet design1
Future Internet Design
  • We only know a little bit about what we don’t want.
  • We really need to know the requirements of the future!
    • What are the possible future applications and why will the current Internet architecture be insufficient?

gap

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

internet
Internet

SMTP

33130 Autonomous Systems

311755 Address Prefixes announced

BGP + DNS

http://bgp.potaroo.net/cidr/

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

unique routable identity
Unique Routable Identity

“Destination Identity” is the ONLY thing you need to communicate with that particular identity!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

unique routable identity1
Unique Routable Identity

SMTP

  • Any identity (email address, IP, url) can communicate with any one else.
    • Email, web, bittorrent, warcraft, skype…

“Destination Identity” is the ONLY thing you need to communicate with that particular identity!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

properties
Properties
  • Unique global network-layer identifier
    • IPv4/v6 addresses
  • Global connectivity
    • The primary job of BGP
    • 311755 Address Prefixes announced

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide11

The emails I received typically each morning…

Spam as just an example…

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

pick your favor spam filter s
Pick your favor Spam Filter(s)

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

the implication of fp s
The Implication of FP’s
  • Spam-filters have to be conservative…
  • We will have some false negatives in our own inboxes.
  • We will spend our own time to further filter..
    • For me, 1~2 seconds per email

A: eliminate 99.99% spams, 10% hams

B: eliminate 60% spams, 0.00001% hams

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide14
BTW…
  • The same applied to DDoS, worm, and, phishing
  • But, let’s just focus on spam today…

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide15

You have a few seconds to decide……

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide17

Oops…

“BTW, a small typo as well!”

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide19

11/27

/2007

12/10

/2007

Spammed?

“Memoryless”

For Felix Wu

11/16

/2007

11/26

/2007

In my office

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide20

SMTP

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide21

SMTP

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide22

We are trying to make the information of social context and relationship explicit!

SMTP

Eric

Felix

Dualism

Justin

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

internet1
Internet

SMTP

33130 Autonomous Systems

311755 Address Prefixes announced

BGP + DNS

http://bgp.potaroo.net/cidr/

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

social control routing
Social-Control Routing

SMTP

3

2

1

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

the value of the social network
The value of the “Social Network”
  • Social Network has its own unique value in facilitating human communication
  • A concern about a network losing its “value”
    • while we are unsure about how to quantify the true value…

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

social network games
Social Network Games

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

fighter s club
Fighter’s Club
  • A couple millions users
  • A Coalition game ~ like Warcraft
  • Team members who are Facebook friends receive higher fighting powers
  • ~1400 new friendships established daily
  • ~10% of users with >95% friendships purely based on this game.

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

open issues
Open Issues
  • What is the “value” of this social network?
  • How would this “value” be distributed and allocated to each individual peers?
  • MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn didn’t define the “game” for network formation and value allocation.
    • But, it is important to design the game such that the OSN will eventually converge to a state to best support the communities.

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide32

http

Roughly your friends (or friend2s)

Anybody with an IP address

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide34

40 to 300 to 350+ millions

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide36

http

Roughly your friends (or friend2s)

Quality of the Friendshipmay have been out of control…

A typical politician in Taiwan has about 3K+ FB friends!

Anybody with an IP address

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide37

http

“real” human social network

Roughly your friends (or friend2s)

online

social network

Quality of the Friendshipmay have been out of control…

A typical politician in Taiwan has about 3K+ FB friends!

Anybody with an IP address

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide38

http

What we really want:

Roughly your friends (or friend2s)

Anybody with an IP address

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide39

A possible fundamental flaw of Facebook security design!

Is the application spreading the virus/worm?

Is the application accessing certain private information of yours?

e.g., why should the application look at my wall posts all the time!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

faith proxy
FAITH Proxy

FAITH

“Should I have faith in you?”

FAITH (Facebook Application Identifier Translator & Hypervisor)

like NAT (Network Address Translation)

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

value of osn
Value of OSN
  • How to leverage the value of Online Social Network in Computing/Communication?
    • Privacy/Confidentiality, Social Ranking
  • How to architect the Social Network itself such that its value can be protected?
    • Trust and Reputation

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

social computing
Social Computing

“Future” Applications

Online Social Computing/Networking

Service Infrastructure

FIND

Internet

Network Virtualization

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide43

SMTP

Eric

Felix

Facebook

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide44

SMTP

Divert

Existing

Applications

Native DSL

Applications

and Games

Wrapper

Eric

Felix

Social Context

DSL Kernel

Name-ID

resolution

Community

Oriented

Keywords

Policy/Reputation-based

Route discovery

Facebook

DSLoFB

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide45

SMTP

SoEmail

Eric

Felix

Social Context

DSL Kernel

Name-ID

resolution

Community

Oriented

Keywords

Policy/Reputation-based

Route discovery

Facebook

DSLoFB

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide47

SMTP

Divert

Wrapper

Lerone

Felix

Social Context

DSL Kernel

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide48

SMTP

Routing in the email/DNS/IP layer

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide49

SMTP

Routing in the email/DNS/IP layer

Routing in the social network layer

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide50

XYZ???

Considering:

No IP/IPv6 addresses

No DNS/BGP

Routing in the social network layer

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

who is salma
Who is Salma?

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

my message to salma
My message to Salma

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

my message to salma1
My message to Salma

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

the social path s
The Social Path(s)

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

doesn t know the address of
doesn’t know the address of

B

D

A

C

“A” has to explicitly declare if there is any social context under this communication activity with “D”! But, “D” only cares if it is from “C” or not!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

finding
Finding

B

D

A

C

A2D, while D is McDonald’s!

D would like “customers” to find the right route.

“idea: keyword propagation” e.g., “McDonald’s”

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

internet connection
Internet Connection
  • IP address/Gateway + DNS server

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

social internet connection
Social Internet Connection
  • IP address/Gateway + DNS server
  • My Direct Friends
  • What I should tell my friends about myself

(unnecessary)

SoISP = {AT&T + Facebook}

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

as the social peer
as the Social Peer
  • Attributes: (available only to direct friends)
    • {McDonald’s Express, 640 W Covell Blvd, # D, Davis, (530) 756-8886, Davis Senior High School, Community Park, North Davis}

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide60

Keyword & its

propagation policy

Trust

Hop Count

Community Attribute

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

propagating the keywords of
Propagating the keywords of

B

D

K: “McDonald’s”

A

C

Hop-by-hop keyword propagation

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

propagating the keywords of1
Propagating the keywords of

B

D

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

A

C

Hop-by-hop keyword propagation

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

propagating the keywords of2
Propagating the keywords of

B

D

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

A

C

Hop-by-hop keyword propagation

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide64

Propagating the keywords of

B

D

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

A

C

Hop-by-hop keyword propagation

And, I know I am doing FLOODING!!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

control the flooding
Control the Flooding
  • Internet Addresses
    • The scale is much smaller (300K)
    • Addressing is hierarchical (aggregation)
    • Global connectivity was given on day one
  • Social Attributes
    • Much larger (350M times # of Attributes)
    • Unstructured naming
    • Global social connectivity is being developed by the social network itself

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

in community of davis
in Community of Davis

B

D

A

C

Who should receive the keyword announcement for “McDonald’s”?

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

per keyword propagation policy
“Per-Keyword Propagation Policy”
  • For each keyword, we will associate it with a propagation policy: [T, N, A]
    • T: Trust Value Threshold
    • N: Hop counts left to propagate (-1 each step)
    • A: Community Attributes
  • Examples:
    • [>0.66, 4, “Davis”] K via L1
    • [>=0, , ] K via L2

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

social community attributes
Social/Community Attributes

B

D

A

C

Who should receive the keyword announcement for “McDonald’s”? Answer:

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

community
Community

B

D

A

C

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

community1
Community
  • A connected graph of social nodes sharing a set of community attributes

B

D

A

C

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

we lost global connectivity
We lost “Global Connectivity”!
  • We cannot propagate all the keywords “too far away” for the concern of scalability.
    • Global reachability is sacrificed.
  • But, “Less might well be More”
    • In between deny and allow by default…
    • Communication is mutual!
    • As an example, if we want to communicate with a certain far-reach region as “our mission”, then we will send a missionary there on OSN!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

reaching western africa
reaching Western Africa…

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

connecting to western africa
Connecting to Western Africa

Sending a missionary there Socially!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

now finding
Now Finding

Q: McDonald’s

B

D

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

A

C

Search Keyword: “McDonald’s”

A might know D’s keyword via two channels

(1) Somebody else (2) From its friends

Questions: does D need an identity? Scalable?

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

we also lost unique identification
We also lost “unique identification”
  • At least, at the social network and keyword layer!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

phishing attacks
Phishing Attacks
  • Today, somebody would trick us to believe that they are the official Bank of America!
  • In DSL, ANYBODY can claim to be BoA as long as they announce the magic keywords.
    • So, we are “Phishing by Default”.

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

why not
Why not?
  • Relying on IP (& BGP), URL, DNS, and trusted browser plus uncompromised Javascripts and captures might not be terribly secure anyway.
  • We need end-to-end mutual authentication for certain applications, and more importantly, at the application layer!
    • Different applications have different security requirements!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

application tests
Application Tests
  • Example 1: credential-oriented
    • “PKI certificate” as the keyword
    • If you can sign or decrypt the message, you are the ONE! (BTW, not all applications need this!)
  • Example 2: service-oriented
    • Service/protocol/bandwidth support
  • Example 3: offer-oriented
    • Please send me your coupons/promotions!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

finding1
Finding

Application Test

Q: McDonald’s

B

D

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

K: “McDonald’s”

A

C

Search Keyword: “McDonald’s”

Questions: is this the right McDonald’s?

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

routable identity
“Routable Identity”
  • Application identity=M=> Network identity
  • Network identity =R=> Network identity
  • Network identity =M=>Application identity

Application Entity

Application Entity

DNS

BGP

Network Entity

Network Entity

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

app route identity
“App/Route Identity”
  • Application identity =M=> Network identity
  • Network identity =R=> Network identity
  • Network identity =M=> Application identity
  • Keywords =(MF-R)=> “Multiple Paths”
  • Application identity selection
  • Network route selection

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

social control layer1
“Social Control Layer”

Application Entity

Application Entity

Network Route Selection

Social

Entity

Social

Entity

Dualism

AL-BGP

Network Entity

Network Entity

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

hijackable routable identify
Hijackable Routable Identify

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

application test layer 3
Application Test <> “Layer 3”

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

app route identity1
“App/Route Identity”
  • Application identity =M=> Network identity
  • Network identity =R=> Network identity
  • Network identity =M=> Application identity
  • Keywords =(MF-R)=> “Multiple Paths”
  • Application identity selection
  • Network route selection

The end user will have some control via the social layer!

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

uri versus adc
URI versus ADC
  • URI (Unique Routable Identity)
    • We assume that our destination target is bound to an URI.
    • We assume that both the MAPPING (e.g., DNS) and ROUTING (e.g., BGP) are correct.
  • ADC (Application Dependent Credential)
    • The lower layer (like search engine) will give us a few options to click.
    • The application (or the user) will then choose the one (or ones).

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

a couple issues
A couple issues …
  • How to establish the social route?
    • How would “A” know about “D” (or “D’s identity”) ?
  • How to maintain this “reputation network”?
    • KarmaNet: A Feed-back Trust Control System

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

d decides and rewards punishes
D decides, and rewards/punishes…

Pkt[c>d]

A

B

C

D

Trust(B>A)

Trust(C>B)

Trust(D>C)

Pkt[ab]

Pkt[abc]

Pkt[bcd]

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

trust structure
Trust Structure

We want to stabilize these decentralized values such that they can be used to effectively choose the “best” route.

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

routing with trust
Routing with Trust

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide92

Simulation study of 100K+ nodes…

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

pairwise 1 way trust
Pairwise 1-way Trust

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

trust reputation systems
Trust/Reputation Systems
  • performance and responsiveness to dynamics (of trust and reputation)
    • Assuming no oracle or human reset (and we might not have ground truth in real-time anyway).
    • operations and management
  • Bounded/unbounded for life-time expected attack instances
    • Versus bounded for a fix period of time
    • Probabilistic versus Deterministic

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide97

SMTP

Divert

Existing

Applications

Native DSL

Applications

and Games

Wrapper

Eric

Felix

Social Context

DSL Kernel

Name-ID

resolution

Community

Oriented

Keywords

Policy/Reputation-based

Route discovery

Facebook

DSLoFB

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

dsl is an old idea
DSL is an old idea!

A

B

And, I certainly don’t have the answer yet…

We, as human, have been using similar social communication principles. Maybe it is a good opportunity to re-think about our cyber communication system.

Re-consider the current Internet architecture

  • Global Connectivity vs. Mutual Interest
  • Unique Routable Identifier vs. Application Dependent Credential

F

A

B

F

F

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide99

“Future” Applications

Online Social Computing/Networking

Service Infrastructure

Bridging the

between end users and the network!

FIND

Internet

Network Virtualization

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

status1
Status
  • FIND + GENI
  • Facebook platform plus a suite of applications
    • You are welcome to join!
  • http://dsl.cs.ucdavis.edu/

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

slide102

ISP + SCSP(Social Community Service Provider)

SMTP

Internet {old/new} Applications

3

2

1

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • NSF/FIND, GENI, ARO/MURI, CTA, Intel

Davis Social Links @ IWCNS'2009