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The Nature of Matter. Section 5-1. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter. I. Atom: _____________________________________ A. Subatomic Particles. Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge.

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The Nature of Matter


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    1. The Nature of Matter Section 5-1

    2. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: _____________________________________ A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    3. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    4. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    5. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    6. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    7. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    8. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    9. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    10. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ________ and _____. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    11. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of ______and _______. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    12. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of protons and electrons. Atoms that lose electrons have a ________________ charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    13. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of protons and electrons. Atoms that lose electrons have a positive charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a ________________ charge.

    14. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Atom: smallest unit of matter A. Subatomic Particles Most atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of protons and electrons. Atoms that lose electrons have a positive charge. Atoms that gain electrons have a negative charge.

    15. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Element: ______________________________________ A. atomic number: _____________________________ B. mass number: _____________________________ C. isotope: __________________________________ ______________________________________________ D. radioactive isotope: ________________________ ___________________________________________ 1. uses: _________________________________ ___________________________________________

    16. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Element: substance made of one type of atom A. atomic number: _____________________________ B. mass number: _____________________________ C. isotope: __________________________________ ______________________________________________ D. radioactive isotope: ________________________ ___________________________________________ 1. uses: _________________________________ ___________________________________________

    17. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Element: substance made of one type of atom A. atomic number: #protons – defines an element B. mass number: _____________________________ C. isotope: __________________________________ ______________________________________________ D. radioactive isotope: ________________________ ___________________________________________ 1. uses: _________________________________ ___________________________________________

    18. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Element: substance made of one type of atom A. atomic number: #protons – defines an element B. mass number: sum of protons + neutrons in an atom C. isotope: __________________________________ ______________________________________________ D. radioactive isotope: ________________________ ___________________________________________ 1. uses: _________________________________ ___________________________________________

    19. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Element: substance made of one type of atom A. atomic number: #protons – defines an element B. mass number: sum of protons + neutrons in an atom C. isotope: atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons D. radioactive isotope: ________________________ ___________________________________________ 1. uses: _________________________________ ___________________________________________

    20. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Element: substance made of one type of atom A. atomic number: #protons – defines an element B. mass number: sum of protons + neutrons in an atom C. isotope: atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons D. radioactive isotope: isotope with an unstable nucleus that breaks down over time (emits radiation) 1. uses: _________________________________ ___________________________________________

    21. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter I. Element: substance made of one type of atom A. atomic number: #protons – defines an element B. mass number: sum of protons + neutrons in an atom C. isotope: atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons D. radioactive isotope: isotope with an unstable nucleus that breaks down over time (emits radiation) 1. uses: dating fossils, diagnosing and treating diseases, killing bacteria in food/ on surgical equipment

    22. Nonradioactive carbon-12 Nonradioactive carbon-13 Radioactive carbon-14 6 electrons 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 electrons 6 protons 7 neutrons 6 electrons 6 protons 8 neutrons Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter

    23. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter • III. Compound: _________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • IV. Chemical Bonds • valence electrons: _________________________ • ion: ______________________________ • B. ionic bond:___________________________________ • ____________________ • C. covalent bond: _______________________________ • ___________ • molecule: ___________________________________

    24. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter • III. Compound: substance formed by the chemical combination of ≥ 2 elements in definite proportions • IV. Chemical Bonds • valence electrons: _________________________ • ion: ______________________________ • B. ionic bond:___________________________________ • ____________________ • C. covalent bond: _______________________________ • ___________ • molecule: ___________________________________

    25. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter • III. Compound: substance formed by the chemical combination of ≥ 2 elements in definite proportions • IV. Chemical Bonds • valence electrons: outermost electrons in an atom • ion: ______________________________ • B. ionic bond:___________________________________ • ____________________ • C. covalent bond: _______________________________ • ___________ • molecule: ___________________________________

    26. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter • III. Compound: substance formed by the chemical combination of ≥ 2 elements in definite proportions • IV. Chemical Bonds • valence electrons: outermost electrons in an atom • ion: atom that has gained or lost electrons • B. ionic bond:___________________________________ • ____________________ • C. covalent bond: _______________________________ • ___________ • molecule: ___________________________________

    27. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter • III. Compound: substance formed by the chemical combination of ≥ 2 elements in definite proportions • IV. Chemical Bonds • valence electrons: outermost electrons in an atom • ion: atom that has gained or lost electrons • B. ionic bond: bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another • C. covalent bond: _______________________________ • ___________ • molecule: ___________________________________

    28. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter • III. Compound: substance formed by the chemical combination of ≥ 2 elements in definite proportions • IV. Chemical Bonds • valence electrons: outermost electrons in an atom • ion: atom that has gained or lost electrons • B. ionic bond: bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another • C. covalent bond: bond formed when atoms share electrons • molecule: ___________________________________

    29. Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter • III. Compound: substance formed by the chemical combination of ≥ 2 elements in definite proportions • IV. Chemical Bonds • valence electrons: outermost electrons in an atom • ion: atom that has gained or lost electrons • B. ionic bond: bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another • C. covalent bond: bond formed when atoms share electrons • molecule: group of atoms covalently bonded together

    30. Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) Transfer of electron Protons +11 Electrons -11 Charge 0 Protons +17 Electrons -17 Charge 0 Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter

    31. Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) Sodium ion (Na+) Chloride ion (Cl-) Transfer of electron Protons +11 Electrons -11 Charge 0 Protons +17 Electrons -17 Charge 0 Protons +11 Electrons -10 Charge +1 Protons +17 Electrons -18 Charge -1 Note-Taking Guide: The Nature of Matter

    32. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: 1. 2. 3. 4. Elements are arranged in order of increasing An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. 2.

    33. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. 2. 3. 4. Elements are arranged in order of increasing An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. 2.

    34. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. atomic number 2. 3. 4. Elements are arranged in order of increasing An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. 2.

    35. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. atomic number 2. element symbol 3. 4. Elements are arranged in order of increasing An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. 2.

    36. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. atomic number 2. element symbol 3. element name 4. Elements are arranged in order of increasing An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. 2.

    37. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. atomic number 2. element symbol 3. element name 4. atomic mass (weighted avg. of the mass # of each isotope) Elements are arranged in order of increasing An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. 2.

    38. 6 C Carbon 12.011 Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding

    39. 6 C Carbon 12.011 Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding Atomic number

    40. 6 C Carbon 12.011 Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding Atomic number Element Symbol

    41. 6 C Carbon 12.011 Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding Atomic number Element Symbol Element Name

    42. 6 C Carbon 12.011 Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding Atomic number Element Symbol Element Name Atomic mass

    43. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. atomic number 2. element symbol 3. element name 4. atomic mass (weighted avg. of the mass # of each isotope) Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. 2.

    44. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. atomic number 2. element symbol 3. element name 4. atomic mass (weighted avg. of the mass # of each isotope) Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. chemical and physical properties of the element 2.

    45. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding I. Periodic Table Design: Each square contains info. about 1 element. 1. atomic number 2. element symbol 3. element name 4. atomic mass (weighted avg. of the mass # of each isotope) Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. An element’s position on the periodic table tells you: 1. chemical and physical properties of the element 2. how the element will bond with other elements

    46. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding • Families: • Periods:

    47. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding • Families: vertical columns; elements in the same family have similar properties • B. Periods:

    48. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding • Families: vertical columns; elements in the same family have similar properties • B. Periods: horizontal rows; elements in the same period do NOT have similar properties

    49. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding II. Electrons and Orbitals A. orbital: B. Bohr diagram: 1st orbital can hold _ electrons. 2nd orbital can hold _ electrons. 3rd orbital can hold _ electrons.

    50. Periodic Table, Electrons, and Bonding II. Electrons and Orbitals A. orbital: region in space (outside the nucleus) where electrons are found B. Bohr diagram: 1st orbital can hold _ electrons. 2nd orbital can hold _ electrons. 3rd orbital can hold _ electrons.