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The Brain

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  1. The Brain Our partner in learning…

  2. Our Brain: Essence and Existence

  3. “FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.”

  4. Phrenology

  5. New Technologies Yield “Explosion” of Data • CT • EEG • MRI • fMRI • PET

  6. BASIC BRAIN FACTS……. • The average brain weights 3 lbs • The brain needs food/sleep/stimulation • Development is influenced by critical periods • The brain is 90-95% of it’s full size by age 6 • The brain has a massive re-organization between birth and 1-year & 12-15 • The brain can repair itself (plasticity) • The brain is always learning

  7. Why study the brain? • Brain/Behavior connection • Treat diseases of the brain: Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, epilepsy, depression, learning disabilities, etc. • To see what happens to a person’s behavior when they are under the influence of drugs • Understand the causes of violent behavior • Change someone’s IQ?

  8. The Cerebral cortex… • The majority of the brain in humans • 1/10” think • Called the “Bark” or “Grey Matter” • Contains 70% of Neurons in Central Nervous System • Corticalization=Wrinkling of brain increases its size

  9. 2 Hemispheres Left Brain • Focus on details • Interprets/recognizes language • Analyzes and evaluates facts • Time • Sequencing Right Brain • Processes images/visual patterns • Language through context(body language/tone of voice) • Recognizes places, faces & patterns

  10. Two hemispheres connected by… The corpus callosum

  11. Corpus Callosum

  12. The Lobes • The Frontal Lobe • The Parietal Lobe • Temporal Lobe • Occipital Lobe • Cerebellum

  13. Frontal Lobe • Critical thinking • Reasoning • Analysis • Planning • Social behavior • Insight • Judgment • Self-control

  14. Anterior Cingulate Gyrus • Impulse control • Goal directed behavior • Amount of attention given to thought/behavior • Ability to focus • See the world from another perspective • Make decisions when in conflict • Redirect attention when off-task

  15. Deep Inside the BrainThe Limbic System • Hippocampus • Thalamus • Amygdala • Hypothalamus

  16. Language Center of the brain.. Wernicke= Language Center Broca= Speech Center

  17. Wernicke

  18. Disorders of Language.. • Aphasia= Partial or total loss of ability to articulate ideas • Agnosia= Inability to identify objects • Facial Agnosia=Inability to recognize faces

  19. Life sustaining brain structures • Medulla=breathing, swallowing, digestion, heartbeat • Pons=sleep & arrousal • Reticular Formation= arousal, attention, reflexes • Cerebellum= balance, coordinated movement