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Health and Social Impacts of Rising Deportation Rates in the U.S. Lindsay Shade and Dennis Stinchcomb. Objectives. What are the social and legal mechanisms behind the 110% increase in rates of deportation since 2001? What is the demographic composition of deportees?
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Health and Social Impacts of Rising Deportation Rates in the U.S. Lindsay Shade and Dennis Stinchcomb
Objectives • What are the social and legal mechanisms behind the 110% increase in rates of deportation since 2001? • What is the demographic composition of deportees? • What are the systemic health impacts (and public costs) of rising rates of deportation, particularly in terms of the spatial organization of society? • How does this problem affect the Washington, DC metropolitan area? Seminar Program: • Deportation statistics • The Secure Communities program and community disruption • An example from Prince George’s County • Existing studies on the psycho-social impacts of deportation • Understanding deportation and HIV/AIDS • What are people doing? Advocacy organizations and non-profits • Potential research contacts and known gaps
A Look at the Numbers *Information from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics REMOVAL TREND IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
A Look at the Numbers ETHNICITY Though persons of Latin American origin make up just over three-fourths of the roughly 11 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S., they accounted for 97 percent of all deportations during FY 2010 *Information from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics *Culture of Cruelty, based on a sample of 12,895 deportees
A Look at the Numbers *Information from Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC) • IMMIGRATION STATUS • Human Rights Watch reports that between April 1997 and August 2007, the U.S. deported 87,884 legal permanent residents (LPRs), which accounted for 10 percent of all removals • LENGTH OF RESIDENCY • LPRs deported during this time period had lived in the U.S. an average of ten years • HOUSEHOLD SITUATION • DHS Inspector General reports that between FYs 1998 and 2007, 5 percent of deportees were the parents of U.S.-citizen children.
A Look at the Numbers CRIMINAL ALIEN REMOVALS *Information from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, ICE
Community Disruption and the Secure Communities Program • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) program to partner with federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies on immigration enforcement. • Relies on integrated databases and information sharing with local and state jailers to build deportation capacity. • Ostensibly targeted at removal of most dangerous criminal aliens. • Introduced by Bush Administration in March 2008 and piloted in 14 jurisdictions in October, 2008 • President Obama expanded dramatically: operated in 2,304 jurisdictions in 48 states and territories as of Feb. 29, 2012
Community Disruption and the Secure Communities Program *Data from US Immigration and Customs Enforcement: Secure Communities IDENT/IAFIS interoperability statistics through Feb 29 2012.
Prince George’s County, MD “ “ What the numbers show me is that there is some form of racial profiling going on. The police department in Prince George's County has to bear the brunt of the responsibility here. It's my belief that their racial makeup doesn't reflect the population of Prince George's County. --Gustavo Andrade, CASA de Maryland
Psycho-Social Impacts • Arbona, C. et al. (2010) “Acculturative Stress Among Documented and Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 32(3): 362-84 • Brabeck, K. and Q. Xu (2010). “The Impact of Detention and Deportation on Latino Immigrant Children and Families: A Quantitative Exploration” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences32(3):341-36 • Cavazos-Rehg, P. et al. (2007). “Legal Status, Emotional Well-Being and Subjective Health Status of Latino Immigrants.” Journal of the National Medical Association 99(10): 1126-31. • Relevant Conclusions: • Worries about legal status can heighten the risk of remotional distress and impaired quality of health. • There is a tendency of the immigrant population not to seek mental health treatment, medical care, or social services assistance for fear of legal entanglement or deportation, which compounds the mental health conditions of the US immigrant population.
Psycho-Social Impacts • Hagan, J., Castro, B. and Rodriguez, N. (2011). “Social Effects of Mass Deportations by the United States Government, 2000-10.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 34(8): 1374-91 • Hagan, J., Eschbach, K. and Rodriguez, N. (2008). “U.S. Deportation Policy, Family Separation, and Circular Migration.” International Migration Review 42(1): 64-88. • Relevant Conclusions: • US enforcement policies are straining transnational families and imposing fear on immigrant communities. • Law enforcement and related stress has been more pronounced in new destination states and in small rural areas. • A significant number of deportees were long-time residents of the United States. • Strong social ties and the formation of US-based families increases the likelihood of repeat migration.
Psycho-Social Impacts • Applied Research Center. Shattered Families: The Perilous Intersection of Immigration Enforcement and the Child Welfare System. November 2011. • Mendoza, Marcela and Olivas, Edward M. (2009). “Advocating for Control with Compassion: The Impact of Raids and Deportations on Children and Families.” Oregon Review of International Law. 11(1): 111-122. • Relevant Conclusions: • In the first 6 months of 2011, Homeland Security removed more than 46,000 parents of US citizen children. ARC estimates that there are at least 5,100 children currently living in foster care whose parents have been detained or deported. • Legal experts suggest that deportation of the parents of US citizen children results in increased burden on community institutions and social programs, such as schools, churches, and foster care systems.
Deportation and HIV Vulnerability Brouwer, et al. “Deportation Along the U.S.–Mexico Border: Its Relation to Drug Use Patterns and Accessing Care.” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 11:1 (2009): 1-6. Goldenberg, Shira, et al. “People Here Are Alone, Using Drugs, Selling their Body’: Deportation and HIV Vulnerability among Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.” Field Actions Science Reports Special Issue 2 (2010). Strathdee, S. A., et al. “Differential Effects of Migration and Deportation on HIV Infection among Male and Female Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico.” PLoS One 3.7 (2008). • Relevant Conclusions: • Social dislocation and economic marginalization experienced by deportees linked to HIV through substance abuse and unprotected sexual relations • Deportees likely to engage in risky behavior and have different drug use patterns • Deportees reported to have less interaction with public health services
What are People Doing? Advocacy Organizations • Casa de Maryland • CreciendoJuntos • National Immigrant Youth Alliance
Where do we go from here? • RECURRENT THEMES: • The effects of deportation on sexual activity and drug use—deportation induces risky behavior • Lack of access to medical care as a result of deportation • Inadequate medical care during the process of deterntion and deportation • Rather superficial analysis of psychosocial impacts on relatives of deportees • MISSING INFORMATION: • Longitudinal research and systematic analysis, beyond anecdotal information of the impact of deportation on U.S. families and communities—health and educational outcomes • Research on the effects of the threat of deportation and community policing policies on immigrant health