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Alaska SeaLife Center Contaminants Project. Endocrinology, Immunology and Toxicology. S. Atkinson, K. Mashburn, M. Myers, B. Middlebrooks, J. Colvocoresses, Q. Li. Background. Man made chemicals are everywhere – in virtually all living creatures and environments.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Alaska SeaLife Center

Contaminants Project

Endocrinology, Immunology

and Toxicology

S. Atkinson, K. Mashburn, M. Myers,

B. Middlebrooks, J. Colvocoresses, Q. Li

slide2

Background

  • Man made chemicals are everywhere –
  • in virtually all living creatures and environments
  • Synthetic chemicals can mimic natural hormones
  • upsetting normal reproductive and
  • developmental processes
  • Immunosuppression has also been linked
  • to organic pollutants
  • If pollution loads can act as endocrine disruptors
  • and depress immunity, individuals may experience
  • lowered survivability.
slide3

Background- Cont.

  • While contaminants occur in low levels in

many animals, due to the persistant nature

of the compounds, body burdens increase

with an increase in trophic level.

OBJECTIVE:

  • To look at the body burden of
  • organochlorine and heavy metals compared to
  • thyroid function (including retinol) and
  • immunoglobulin values
slide4

The Function of Thyroid and Retinol Hormones

  • Hormones represent an integrated response
  • to a number of environmental and physiological
  • factors that influence reproduction,
  • growth, metabolism, and body condition.
  • Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation
  • of energy management in mammals through
  • changes in basal metabolic rate, the absorption
  • of carbohydrates from the intestine,
  • lipid metabolism, and heat production.
  • Retinoic acid (vitamin A) must be present

for protein synthesis to occur. Low levels

contribute to decreased ability to make antibodies.

slide5

Common Organochlorine Contaminants

DDT

DDT

2,2’,5,5’,- Tetrochlorobiphenyl

Primary Reproductive Steroids

Estradiol

Testosterone

Progesterone

slide6

Compounds Most Selectively Bound By Transthyretin

Dioxin

Retinoic Acid

Thyroxine (T4)

slide8

PHOTOPERIOD/SEASON

EXTERNAL PERTURBATIONS

Environmental Change

Disease

Change in Food Abundance/Quality

Increased Predators

Contaminants

TROPIC HORMONES

TSH

ACTH

GnRH

IMMUNE SYTEM

THYMUS

MARROW

THYROID

GONAD

ADRENAL

LYMPHOCYTES

METABOLIC HOMEOSTASIS

Growth, Reproduction

STRESS

HYPOTHALAMUS

Releasing

Hormones

Innervation

Other Factors

PITUITARY

ADRENAL HORMONES

GONADAL STEROIDS

THYROXINE

slide9

Functions of Immunoglobulin Isotypes Found in Mammals

  • IgA
    • Most prevalent immunoglobulin in mucosal areas of the body (e.g. milk, saliva, tears)
    • Most important immuoglobulin in removing bacteria from mucosal areas
  • IgD
    • No known function, except activation of B cell
  • IgE
    • Involved in allergic responses
    • Involved in response to parasites
  • IgG
    • Crosses placenta (in some species)
    • Important in primary and secondary immune response
    • Most prevalent immunoglobulin in serum
  • IgM
    • Activation of B cell
    • Important in primary immune response
    • Most important immunoglobulin in agglutinating bacteria inserum
determination of immunoglobulin levels
Determination of Immunoglobulin Levels

.

  • Monoclonal antibodies against Steller sea lion immunoglobulins are used in the development of an ELISA that will allow us to monitor immunoglobulin levels in serum samples.
  • Reagents can be used:
  • To determine the immunocompetence of an animal.
  • To determine specific immunoglobulin titers for specific
  • pathogens within captive or wild Steller sea lions.
  • As a tool in for monitoring the immunological health of these animals
methodology for oc evaluation
Methodology for OC Evaluation
  • Two methods used to investigate OC loads:
    • HPLC/PDA (high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection)  this method was developed to rapidly measure toxic “dioxin-like” CBs and congeners. It is less expensive and less time consuming but has higher LODs (levels of detection)
    • HRGC/ECD (high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detector)  this method is approximately 1000x more sensitive but involves longer sample prep and less cost effective.
sample justification
Sample Justification
  • Goal is to obtain Steller sea lion samples from geographic range and all age groups. Most of the North Pacific basin is represented.
  • Samples will be tested for immunocompetence, OC loads, and hormones
  • Multivariate analysis performed to determine relationships, spatial and temporal trends
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Russian Federation, NMFS, ADF&G, the Universities of Hawaii, Alaska (Fairbanks), Southern Mississippi and the many graduate students and interns that have helped this project continue to grow and prosper.