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  1. u/s 19770 Prepare and present egg and cheese dishes in the hospitality industry. Level 1 Credit 2 us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  2. EGGS us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  3. EGGS • Are an essential kitchen ingredient as they can be utilised in a number of ways. • They are perfect cooked & eaten on their own or as part of breakfast, lunch or as a snack. • They are also incorporated into baking, desserts, pastry, pasta & noodles. • They can be used as a binding agent in stuffing, forcemeats, mayonnaise & other sauces as well as a cooking aid such as coating food for frying, glazing etc. • Eggs are a nutritious & affordable food source. • In NZ we use predominantly hen’s eggs although both duck & quail eggs may also be utilised. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  4. Duck & Quail Eggs Duck & Quail Eggs Quail Egg us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  5. Ostrich Eggs • The largest egg in the world (equivalent to 24 hens eggs). • Eggs weigh 3-6 pounds • Can make an omelette for 10 people & take 45 minutes to hard boil. • Shell is about 1/8 inch thick & therefore good for carving & painting us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  6. The Structure of an Egg Membranes Shell Air Cell Germinal Disc Yolk Thick White Yolk Membrane Thin White Chalazae us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  7. SHELL • the first line of defence against the entry of bacteria • can be brown or white (depends on the breed of hen) – nutritional value is the same • approximately 8000 to 10,000 tiny pores allow moisture, gases & smells to penetrate through us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  8. SHELL MEMBRANES • there are two membranes on the inside of the shell • one membrane sticks to the shell & one surrounds the white (albumen) • the second line of defence against bacteria • composed of thin layers of protein fibres us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  9. GERMINAL DISC • appears as a slight depression on the surface of the yolk • the entry for the fertilisation of the egg (commercially produced eggs are NOT fertile) us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  10. EGG WHITE • there are two layers: thin white & thick white • mostly made of water with high quality protein & some minerals • represents 2/3 of the egg’s weight (without shell) • when a fresh egg is broken, the thick white (a jelly-like substance) stands up firmly around the yolk • the thin white surrounds the thick white and is more watery us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  11. CHALAZA • a pair of spiral bands that anchor the yolk in the centre of the thick white • the fresher the egg the more prominent the chalazas • unnoticeable when the egg is cooked us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  12. YOLK MEMBRANE(VITELLINE MEMBRANE) • surrounds and holds the yolk • when pierced, the yolk breaks • the fresher the egg the stronger the membrane us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  13. YOLK • the egg’s major source of vitamins and minerals, including protein and essential fatty acids • represents 1/3 of the egg’s weight (without shell) • yolk colour ranges from light yellow to deep orange, depending on the hen’s food (diet) us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  14. AIR CELL • forms at the wide (blunt) end of the egg as it cools after being laid • the fresher the egg the smaller the air cell us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  15. QUALITY POINTS FOR EGGS The eggshell should be clean, well-shaped, strong and slightly rough When broken there should be a high proportion of thick white to thin white Yolk should be in the centre, firm, round and of good colour us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  16. QUALITY POINTS FOR EGGS • Due to changes in the egg over time, the chalazae break causing the yolk to move off centre and the thick white starts to break down becoming thinner. • The air cell becomes larger due to evaporation of moisture from the egg. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  17. Quality Changes in Eggs Over Time Fresh Egg Stale Egg Off Centre Yolk Centred Yolk Thick white Thin white us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  18. Quality Changes in Eggs Over Time Fresh Egg, Opened Beginning to Stale Egg, Opened Stale Egg, Opened us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  19. Common Methods for Cooking Eggs • We are going to look at three common methods of cooking eggs: • boiling • poaching • frying us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  20. BOILING • Is the cooking of food that is covered with a liquid at 100°C. • There are two methods for boiling: • placing the food into cold liquid, bringing it up to boiling point and then simmering the food for the duration of cooking • placing the food into boiling liquid, bringing it back to boiling point & then simmering for the duration of cooking us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  21. Cooking times for boiled eggs: • Boiled eggs are cooked in the shell • Soft-Boiled • 3 – 5 minutes • Medium: • 5 – 7 minutes • Hard-Boiled • 8 – 10 minutes us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  22. For boiled eggs there are quality requirements to ensure that the eggs are cooked properly: • no presence of a dark grey-green coating around the yolk; this is an indication the egg has been over-cooked • the white should be set, not hard • the yolk should be set to desired consistency, solid for hard-boiled & starting to thicken, but not hard, for soft-boiled us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  23. POACHING • Is cooking food in a liquid maintained between 93°C and 98°C (just under boiling point). • Tip: break individual eggs into a saucer, and gently slide into the simmering water. This will also help to prevent the eggs from breaking up. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  24. Poaching • For poached eggs, always use the freshest eggs available; the thick albumen will hold its shape better around the yolk than older eggs. • Fill a pan with approximate depth of 8cm of water. Place a small amount of vinegar into the water (approx. 15ml [1T]), which helps the proteins in the egg to coagulate faster by preventing the egg white from spreading. • bring the poaching liquid to a boil & then reduce to a simmer before adding the eggs (bubbles should not break the surface). us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  25. FRYING (shallow) • To cook food in direct contact with hot oil, butter or fat. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  26. Frying • Break eggs & gently slip into the pan. • Immediately reduce heat to low • Cook slowly until whites are completely set & yolks begin to thicken but are not hard. • Turn eggs gently to cook both sides or add a small amount of water & cover with lid to cook tops of eggs. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  27. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS - EGGS • Name two quality point of a fresh egg. • How long does it take to boil a ‘hard-boiled’ egg? • Why should you not store eggs near strong smelling items such as onions or garlic? • What should be added to the water to assist in the setting of the egg white? • What temperature should eggs be poached at? us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  28. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS - EGGS • Name two quality point of a fresh egg. • high proportion of thick white to thin white • high sitting, strong egg yolk • small air cell • clean, unbroken shell • fresh smell • How long does it take to boil a ‘hard-boiled’ egg? • 8 – 10 minutes • Why should you not store eggs near strong smelling items such as onions or garlic? • As the egg shell is porous, odours can penetrate through & taint the egg. • What should be added to the water to assist in the setting of the egg white? • A small amount of vinegar. • What temperature should eggs be poached at? • 93 - 98°C us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  29. CHEESE • Is derived from the milk of animals usually cows, goats & sheep. • Takes approximately 10 litres of milk to yield 1kg cheese • Basically cheese is produced in this way: • The milk is soured by the addition of a bacteria culture. • Rennet is added which causes the protein (casein) in milk to coagulate (curdle) forming a separation in the curds (semi-solids) & the whey (liquid). • The curds are warmed, stirred & allowed to settle so that they whey may be drained off. • The curds are broken up by grinding, then salt is added & they are pressed into specially shaped moulds. • Once a skin or rind has formed & the cheese is set, they are removed from the moulds & placed into special storage to ripen to the desired maturity. This allows the cheese to develop its distinctive flavouring. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  30. Cheese • The process of making cheese varies for each type & this gives each cheese it’s own distinctive characteristic. These differences depend on the following variations in the cheese-making process: • ripening time • subjection of the cheese to different temperatures e.g.. cooking • the addition or reduction of fat • the addition of bacteria cultures • the addition of yeasts • the addition of moulds • the ripening & curing process us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  31. FRESH CHEESE • After the curds & whey have been separated, the whey is drained. The curds are salted, mixed & some are pressed into moulds. • Fresh cheeses are uncooked & unripened. They must be eaten within a short timeframe after manufacture. • Some examples of fresh cheese are: • Bocconcini • Cottage Cheese • Cream Cheese • Feta • Mascarpone • Ricotta us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  32. SOFT WHITE RIND CHEESE • Are neither cooked nor pressed but are shaped in moulds as they drain. • Are exposed to an edible bacteria, either by spraying or dipping, which ripens the cheese from the outside in & this produces the smooth velvety white rind. • The texture ranges from semi-soft to creamy & spreadable. • Some examples of soft white rind cheese are: • Aorangi • Brie • Camembert us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  33. SEMI-SOFT CHEESE • Are pressed to expel more whey & this produces a more rubbery texture. • May be cooked or uncooked & some (Edam & Gouda) are sealed with a coloured wax. • Have a sliceable, yet soft consistency • Examples of semi-soft cheese include: • Edam • Young Gouda • Havarti • Raclette • Port Salut us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  34. SEMI-HARD CHEESES • Are cooked, pressed & ripened although not as long as hard cheeses. • Moisture level is relatively low & their texture is firm but not crumbly. • Examples of semi-hard cheeses include: • Aged Gouda • Gruyere • Cheddar • Emmentale us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  35. HARD CHEESE • Are cooked at high temperatures, cut, pressed & aged for at least two years. • The longer the cheese is held under pressure, the harder, drier & more intense the flavour becomes. • Hard cheeses are generally used for grating. • Examples of hard cheeses include: • Parmesan • Pecorino Romano us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  36. BLUE VEIN CHEESE • Have the mould penicillin added to the milk. • During the aging process the cheese is punctured with holes to ensure the penicillin will grow through to the centre of the cheese & the results are veins of flavoursome blue-green mould throughout the cheese. • Examples of blue vein cheeses include: • Kikorangi • Roquefort • Stilton us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  37. STRETCH CURD CHEESE • The special technique of kneading & stretching the curds, after a hot whey bath, give these cheese their pliable consistency. • An example of stretch curd cheese is: • Mozzarella us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  38. STORAGE OF CHEESE • If stored incorrectly cheese will not last. Therefore it is important to remember these points: • All cheese should be wrapped & stored in the refrigerator. • Fresh & soft white rind cheese should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator. • Hard, semi-hard & semi-soft cheese should be stored in the cheese compartment (warmest area) of the refrigerator. • To prevent drying out, cut cheeses should have their cut surface wrapped with waxed paper, greaseproof paper of foil. The rind should not be wrapped, but allowed to ‘breathe’. • If surface mould appears on hard, semi-hard or semi-soft cheese simply cut away that portion (with a little extra). • If mould appears on fresh or soft rind cheeses, throw it out. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  39. QUALITY INDICATORS FOR CHEESE • There should be no sign of mildew on the rind of the cheese, as this indicates damp storage conditions. • When cut the cheese should not give off an over-strong aroma for the cheese type. There should be no indication of ammonia. • Semi-hard & blue vein cheese should not appear dry when cut. • Soft white rind cheeses should not appear runny when cut. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  40. QUALITY POINTS FOR CHEESE • No Mould on skin/rind • Consistency correct for cheese type us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  41. FETA • A classic Greek cheese traditionally made from sheep or goats’ milk. • It is a white, crumbly rindless cheese commonly found pressed into square cakes. • It is cured & stored in its own salty whey brine & has a rich tangy flavour. • It ranges in texture from dry to semi-dry. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  42. Feta • Common uses include: • served as a snack with olives, bread & wine • many Greek recipes such as Spanokapita • crumbled or cut into small cubes & added to salads us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  43. Spanokapita us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  44. MASCARPONE • Made from the heavy cream of cows’ milk, curdled with the addition of citric acid & set to strain through fine cloth. • Is pale ivory in colour, soft & delicately smooth in texture & sweet, rich & cream-like in flavour. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  45. Mascarpone • Common uses include: • Tiramisu, an Italian dessert • great alternative to cream with berries & other fruits • used in savoury dishes also us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  46. Tiramisu us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  47. RICOTTA • Unlike other cheeses, ricotta is made from the whey rather than the curds of the milk. • In some cases it is produced from a combination of the whey & whole milk. • It is a white, moist cheese with a crumbly texture & a creamy, delicate & slightly sweet taste. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  48. Ricotta • Common uses include: • sauces for pasta • a stuffing for some shaped pasta e.g.. ravioli, cannelloni • mixed in salads • used in the production of cheesecakes us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  49. COTTAGE CHEESE • Has a moist, smooth, slightly grainy texture, with a mild flavour. • This is due to the process of washing the curds to remove most of the cheese’s natural acidity. us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese

  50. Cottage Cheese • Common uses include: • can be mixed in salads • used as an accompaniment with fruit • as a dip • in desserts us 19770 - Eggs & Cheese