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animals.nationalgeographic.com. http://www.flickr.com/photos/klimari1/3739710668/. http://desktopwallpaper-s.com/12-3D-Art/-/Sound/. carlsafina.org. randommealoftheday.blogspot.com. SPECIAL SENSES. Chapter 17. 5 Special Senses. Olfaction Gustation Vision Equilibrium Hearing.

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Special senses

animals.nationalgeographic.com

http://www.flickr.com/photos/klimari1/3739710668/

http://desktopwallpaper-s.com/12-3D-Art/-/Sound/

carlsafina.org

randommealoftheday.blogspot.com

SPECIAL SENSES

  • Chapter 17


5 special senses
5 Special Senses

  • Olfaction

  • Gustation

  • Vision

  • Equilibrium

  • Hearing


Chemical senses
CHEMICAL SENSES

  • Olfaction & Gustation


Olfaction
OLFACTION

  • Nasal concha

  • Olfactory epithelium

  • Olfactory receptor cells

  • Olfactory Pathways


Olfactory receptors
OLFACTORY RECEPTORs


Gustation
GUSTATION

  • Lingual papillae

    • filiform, fungiform, circumvallate

  • Taste Receptors

    • Basal cells

    • Gustatory cells

    • Taste pore



Gustatory discrimination
GUSTATORY DISCRIMINATION

  • Sweet

  • Salty

  • Sour

  • Bitter

  • Umami

  • Water

  • Calcium



Vision1
Vision

  • Lacrimal gland produces tears:

    • Water & lysozyme

  • Tears combine with oil from tarsal gland


Vision2
Vision

  • Three Tunics (Layers)

    • Fibrous

    • Vascular

    • Sensory


Vision3
VISION

  • Lens

    • fibrous capsule

    • suspensory ligaments

    • crystallin protein

  • Accommodation

http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1568/1250.abstract


Visual physiology
VISUAL PHYSIOLOGY

  • Photoreceptors detect photons within visible light spectrum

  • Rods are used in dim light

    • peripheral and night vision

  • Cones are use in bright light

    • Sharp and color vision


Rods cones
RODS & CONES

  • Discs

  • Rhodopsin=Opsin+Retinal

  • Dark adaptation

  • Light adaptation


Color blindness
COLOR BLINDNESS

  • Non-functional cones

  • Protanope

  • Deuteranope

  • Tritanope

  • http://colorvisiontesting.com/what%20colorblind%20people%20see.htm




Retinal processing
RETINAL PROCESSING

  • Ganglion cells are diverse

    • M cells

    • On-center neurons

    • Off-center neurons

    • P cells

  • Horizontal cells

  • Amacrine cells





Inner ear
INNER EAR

  • Three chambers

    • Scala tympani

    • Scala vestibuli

    • Scala media (cochlear duct)

  • Spiral organ of corti


Sound
SOUND

  • Measured in wavelengths

  • Frequency or cycles

    • Hertz=cycles per second

  • Pitch

  • Amplitude

  • Decibels=sound energy




Equilibrium
EQUILIBRIUM

  • Static equilibrium

    • Saccule & utricle

  • Dynamic equilibrium

    • Semicircular ducts (canals)