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Collaborative Time-Sensitive Targeting. Mary (Missy) Cummings, Stacey Scott Humans and Automation Laboratory http://halab.mit.edu {missyc, sdscott}@mit.edu. Current HAL Research Projects.

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Collaborative time sensitive targeting

Collaborative Time-Sensitive Targeting

Mary (Missy) Cummings, Stacey Scott

Humans and Automation Laboratory

http://halab.mit.edu

{missyc, sdscott}@mit.edu


Collaborative time sensitive targeting

Current HAL Research Projects

Research in the Humans and Automation Lab (HAL) focuses on the multifaceted interactions of human and computer decision-making in complex sociotechnical systems.

  • Time-Sensitive Operations for Distributed Teams

  • Measurement of Display Complexity

  • Collaborative Human Computer Decision Making

  • Integrated Sensor Decision Support

  • Reduced Manning for Unmanned Vehicle Teams

  • Single Operator Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles



Collaborative time sensitive targeting

Supervisory Control & Teams

Supporting Supervisors of Teams of HSC Operators

Supporting the Control of Teams of Heterogeneous Unmanned Vehicles


Collaborative time sensitive targeting

Inverting Current UAV Control Schemes

  • How do operators manage multiple supervisory control processes?

  • What effects do human performance limitations have on the overall system?

  • Reduced Manning

    • Combining Shadow positions

    • Multiple UV control for a single operator

    • Distributed control

Multi-Modal Watch Station


Collaborative time sensitive targeting

Collaborative Decision Making

  • Tomahawk Strike Planning: missions and missiles

    • Determine how humans and computer optimization algorithmscan complement each other

    • Cognitive strategies


Collaborative time sensitive targeting

Aiding Human-Computer Path Planning

  • Decision Support for Planetary Exploration

    • Astronaut traversal replanning task

    • Path replanning with increasingly complex constraints

    • Affect of level of automated decision support


Goal of this research project
Goal of this Research Project

To identify or develop technologies to facilitate collaborative decision-making in the time-sensitive targeting task domain



Teamwork in network centric operations
Teamwork in Network-Centric Operations

  • Highly connected operators, often working remotely

  • Heavy reliance on commercially available collaboration technologies

    • email

    • instant messaging (‘chat’)

    • video & desktop conferencing


Benefits of collaboration technologies
Benefits of Collaboration Technologies

  • Facilitate collaboration with remote colleagues

  • Facilitate sharing of and access to digital media during group work (in both co-located and distributed settings)

  • Provide opportunity and support for casual interactions

  • Promote ad hoc collaboration & communication

  • Enhance team cohesion


Disadvantages of collaboration technologies
Disadvantages of Collaboration Technologies

  • Require explicit effort to access / share information

    • implicit or more subtle communication / interaction is often missing

    • lack of non-verbal cues

  • Typically convey information about completed activities, ongoing progress/status information is also important:

    • Has anyone seen my request for help?

    • Is someone working on the problem? What’s their status?

  • Associated costs with using collaboration technologies:

    • distraction

    • time & mental effort of asking for or sharing information


Enhancing teamwork in non military domains
Enhancing Teamwork in Non-Military Domains

  • Research in the CSCW domain has been focused on providing technological support for teamwork in many collaborative settings:

    • corporate, educational, research

  • Reviews of the CSCW literature has revealed common threads across many new approaches to CTs:

    • Minimizing overhead costs of sharing information about remote collaborators

    • Increased use of automation to help provide this information

  • Many approaches are aimed at supporting the shared activity process


Supporting the shared activity process

Virtual School Project Timeline (Carroll et al., 2003)

IBM’s Activity Explorer (Millen et al., 2005)

Supporting the Shared Activity Process

  • Focused on providing team member’s activity awareness (Carroll et al., 2003):

    • awareness of project work that supports group performance in complex tasks

    • implies an awareness of other people’s plans and understandings

Project View IM (Scupelli et al., 2005)


Supporting the shared activity process cont d
Supporting the Shared Activity Process (cont’d)

Approaches for supporting activity awareness:

  • Feedthrough of action

  • Visibility of action

Project View IM (Scupelli et al., 2005)

Scupelli, P., Kiesler, S., Fussell, S.R., & Chen, C. (2005). Project View IM: A Tool for Juggling Multiple Projects and Teams. In Extended Abstracts of CHI 2005: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1773-1776.


Supporting the shared activity process cont d1
Supporting the Shared Activity Process (cont’d)

Approaches for supporting activity awareness:

  • Feedthrough of action

  • Visibility of action

  • Important to situate this information within the context of the shared activity process

Virtual School Project Timeline (Carroll et al., 2003)

Carroll, J.M., Neale, D.C., Isenhour, P.L., Rosson, M.B. & McCrickard, D.S. (2003). Notification and Awareness: Synchronizing task-oriented collaborative activity. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58(5), pp. 605-632.


Challenges introduced by the tst domain
Challenges Introduced by the TST Domain

  • Determining what constitutes relevant activities when ‘shared objects’ are not necessarily ‘files’

  • Reducing the cost of providing activity-related information to team members

  • Balancing awareness and information overload

  • Balancing individual performance and team performance


Methodology for developing activity awareness support for collaborative tst operations
Methodology for Developing Activity Awareness Support for Collaborative TST Operations

  • Develop representative collaborative TST task scenario

  • Conduct task analysis on scenario to develop collaborative technology requirements, focusing on the shared activity process

  • Develop initial team display designs for collaborative TST scenario incorporating CT requirements

  • Implement team display designs

  • Develop evaluation protocol and teamwork metrics for evaluation of team displays

  • Design and build team testing environment

  • Evaluate team displays

  • Iterate team display designs based on study results


Representative task scenario gtt task
Representative Task Scenario: GTT Task Collaborative TST Operations

Generalized Team TST (GTT) Task

  • A convoy is scheduled to passthrough a hostile region

  • Team of UAV operators must protect convoy until convoy exits region

  • Stakeholders:

    • Convoy

    • UAV Operations Team + UAVs

    • Strike Team

    • Intelligence

    • Enemy


Activity awareness information analysis for gtt task scenario inter team interaction

report to Collaborative TST Operations

upper command

TST alert

UAV OperationsTeam

intel

TST ISR

TST BDA

convoy location

BDA

detects location

orders engagement

strike

team

ISR

requests BDA

controls

engages

TST ISR

target pinpoint

Enemy (TSTs)

UAVs

TST BDA

1A

2A

3A

1B

2B

3B

ISR

1C

2C

3C

1D

2D

3D

detects

convoy

Activity Awareness Information Analysis for GTT Task Scenario: Inter-team Interaction


Activity awareness information analysis for gtt task scenario intra team interaction
Activity Awareness Information Analysis for GTT Task Scenario: Intra-team Interaction

TST alerts (convoy)

UAV Operations Team

TST ISR (intel)

TST BDA (intel)

convoy location (intel)

COM

BDA (strike team)

TST ISR (UAVs)

TST BDA (UAVs)

BDA assignments

target allocation

ISR – STR – BDA

report – control

request engagement

UAV Ops

mCDR

authorize engagement

situation update

report to command

controls

orders engagement

requests BDA


Activity awareness requirements for the gtt task scenario
Activity Awareness Requirements for the GTT Scenario: Intra-team InteractionTask Scenario

  • Types of intra-team shared activity information

    • relevance to current tasks / team member

    • available task resources

    • priority of current task activity

    • operators’ availability (progress, workload, tasking availability)

    • operators’ interruptibility (status, cognitive availability)

  • This information helps team members address the questions:

    • when / how can I help somebody else?

    • when / how can I be helped?

    • how do my actions impact others’ activities?


Relevant activity awareness information is role dependent
Relevant Scenario: Intra-team Interaction Activity Awareness Information is Role Dependent

  • COM and mCDR need status and workload information of the UAV Ops to ensure individuals and team are not overwhelmed

    • mCDR can help UAV Ops prioritize task activities or request support from external resources

    • helps COM distributed TST and BDA assignments among UAV Ops

  • UAV Ops need operator & resource availability and interruptibility information

    • helps minimize disruptions when someone is involved in critical tasking

    • helps operators know who can feasibly help them, or who might need their help


Collaborative time sensitive targeting
Supporting Team Supervision: Status and Workload Information on a Situation Display for Battlefield Context


Supporting team supervision status and workload information on a team status display
Supporting Team Supervision: Status and Workload Information on a Team Status Display

CONVOY

5%

Z1

Z2

Z3

Z1

OK

UAV OP 1

OP 1

OP 2

OP 3

total

1A

ISR

1B

route:

10%

25%

10%

15%

total:

20%

50%

90%

53%

1C

targets

ISR

5

1D

UAV OP 2

STR

3

2A

BDA:

2

2B

2C

Comms Connectivity Status

2D

SATELLITE

AWACS

UAV OP 3

UAVTEAM

3A

3B

3C

STRIKE TEAM

3D


Ongoing work display design implementation
Ongoing Work: Display Design & Implementation on a Team Status Display

  • Iterating on the status and workload information displays

  • Developing activity awareness displays to integrate into our existing UAV Op simulation environment, MAUVE, that provides operator & resource availability and interruptibility information

MAUVE Decision Support Display

MAUVE Tactical Display


Ongoing developing team testing lab
Ongoing: Developing Team Testing Lab on a Team Status Display

HAL Complex Operation Center

  • 3 Large-screen displays (A)

  • 4 Reconfigurable operatorstations (B)

  • 2 Mobile operatorstations (tabletPCs &handhelds) (C)

  • Wireless headsetswith microphonesfor ‘always on’ audiovia Internet software


Ongoing developing team testing lab1
Ongoing: Developing Team Testing Lab on a Team Status Display

HAL Complex Operation Center

  • 3 Large-screen displays (A)

  • 4 Reconfigurable operatorstations (B)

  • 2 Mobile operatorstations (tabletPCs &handhelds) (C)

  • Wireless headsetswith microphonesfor ‘always on’ audiovia Internet software


Project summary
Project Summary on a Team Status Display

  • Enhancing activity awareness in collaborative TST environments seems to help promise for helping teams coordinate their actions and help reduce the costs of collaborating via technology

  • Overarching goal of this project is to understand the tradeoffs between supporting individual operator performance and team performance to provide overall mission effectiveness during TST operations


Collaborative time sensitive targeting

This research is funded by: on a Team Status Display

Boeing Phantom Works&Air Force Research Lab

For more information:

http://halab.mit.edu

or

sdscott@mit.edu

Thanks!